Flashcards in Predator Control Deck (20):
In the U.S. in 1999 the two most common predators were which species?
1. Coyotes (60.7%) 2. Dogs (15.1%)
What causes most of the death losses in U.S. sheep and goats?
Coyotes and dogs?
Where are coyotes found in NC and how has their distribution changed?
Every county in NC. Changed dramatically compared to 1986 when ~9 counties reported coyotes.
Should predators be killed or controlled?
Depends on the predator and the local laws. Wolves, bears, eagles, etc. may be protected by law. Also cannot kill dog unless killing it meets certain criteria in NC.
Are red wolves currently a threat to livestock in NC?
No. They are being re-introduced but are not currently at great enough numbers to be a threat.
How do you know what killed a sheep/goat?
There are characteristics unique to coyote attacks and unique to dog attacks. Dogs might kill more than one animal on accident because they are playing with them so they accidentally kill and then leave the bodies because they did not kill for the food. Coyotes usually kill 1 animal for food, drag it away and eat it (so no body will be left, may just see head or blood).
Should you get rid of all coyotes automatically?
Some coyotes may not be bothering your animals if they have a food source somewhere else. They may actually protect your animals because they might think of your farm as their territory and protect it. Do not leave dead animals, blood, placentas, etc out to attract coyotes to encourage them to think of your farm as a source of food.
What type of fencing can keep out predators?
Woven wire with an electric piece near bottom to shock noses of dogs and coyotes when they try to dig under fence.
What species is currently the biggest predatorial threat in NC?
Dogs. But they can only be killed if the owner is notified in the presence of a judge and the owner does not take action against its animal being killed.
What is the standard mode of operation for predators?
They are repeat offenders. Once they realize they can kill on your farm, they will come back.
Types of Guardian Animals
Llama, donkey, dog.
Characteristics of a Good Guardian Animal
Needs to stay with the herd/flock. Should not harm goats/sheep. Should be aggressive towards predators.
Things to Consider When Choosing a Guardian Animal
What does the guardian animal eat? What kind of care does it need? Is it a good defense against the types of predators you're having trouble with? Is it a threat to people that will come near the herd/flock? How easily and well trained can it be?
Most Common Guardian Dog Breed
How long have guardian dogs been used?
More than 2,000 years ago
Can more than one guardian dog be used in same pasture?
Yes. This is still effective.
How long have donkeys been used to guard small ruminants?
Problems with Using Guardian Donkeys
May not instinctively be a guardian, may have erratic behavior during estrus, lambing, or kidding. Will not do a good job when more than one donkey is around because they will just pay attention to the other donkey. Males may be too aggressive with the small ruminants (need gelded jack or jenny). Ionophores can kill equids but may be present in some small ruminant feeds.
Problems with Guardian Llamas
Can be in danger themselves when they run towards predators because they are just as defenseless as sheep & goats. They can die from heat stress so need to be shorn in hot SE climate of NC. Males can be aggressive (use gelded males or females). Use only one per pasture? May spit at people trying to work with sheep/goats, get overprotective.