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Flashcards in Pregnancy complications in large animals Deck (18)
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1

pregnancy failure

no fertilisation - 10%
embryonic loss

2

pregnancy loss

Early embryonic mortality - before maternal Recognition of Pregnancy or 1st return to oestrus; regular returns
Late embryonic mortality - After MRP; irregular returns, before completion of organogenesis / foetus Foetal loss after day 42 (cow), irregular returns

3

chromosomal abnormalities

11% in heifers
9% in cows

4

infectious agents

Leptospira hardjo
Ureaplasma diversum
Campylobacter fetus
Bovine herpes virus 1 (IBR)
Bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV)
Neospora caninum

5

stress

can alter hormone levels

6

Trauma (rectal palpation)

fluctuation - 4.4% loss
fluctuation + amnion - 6.1% loss
fluctuation + amnion - 9.1% loss

7

iatrogenic factors

Corticosteroids (>255 days)
Prostaglandins
Oestrogens
Oxytocin

8

hydrops

Oedema of placenta - Hydropsamni (hydramnios), Hydropsallantois (hydrallantois)
Variable amount of fluid
Mostly seen in the last 3 months

9

hydrops - options

Cull
Induce parturition
2 stage caesarean section - a ways RFM, always check for second calf

10

hydrops of foetus

Hydrocephalus
Ascites
Anasarca
Treatment - partial foetotomy, caesarean section

11

Torsion of the uterus

End of term in cattle
Around 9 months in the mare; colic presentation Dystocia, 50%
heifers

12

Torsion of the uterus - treatment

Direction, preference counterclockwise
Vaginal exam and rectal exam
Reposition using internal or external forces
remember which way to turn

13

cervical, vaginal prolapse

Sheep and cattle
Often involves cervix as well as vagina
Very common
Mild to fatal

14

cervical, vaginal prolapse - predisposing factors

High BCS / low BCS
High roughage diets / high rumen fill
Twins
increased oestrogens
Lack of exercise
Urinary retention
Breed, age

15

cervical, vaginal prolapse - causes

Vaginal wall must be capable of eversion
Relaxed vagina and vestibule
A force to displace the relaxed organs

16

cervical, vaginal prolapse - consequences

infection - caudal/cranial genital tract
Debility / inappetance
Urinary retention
Rupture of dorsal or lateral wall with visceral eventration

17

cervical, vaginal prolapse - treatment

Necessary - pain, loss of mucus plug of cervix – infection risk
Caudal epidural - local anaesthetic (procain), Xylazine
Various treatment methods

18

Uterine prolapse

Immediately pp
Hypocalcaemia
Emergency
Support when cow is standing
Remove foetal membranes
Epidural block
Frog position
Keep on pushing back
(Use of sugar)
Bottle to push further