Pregnancy/Loss/Misalliance/Dystocia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pregnancy/Loss/Misalliance/Dystocia Deck (38)
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1
Q

When should you advise an owner to switch a pregnant dog from adult food to all life stages or puppy food?

A

(At the pregnancy check at 28 days)

2
Q

Progesterone needs to be greater than what value to maintain pregnancy in a dog?

A

(>2ng/ml)

3
Q

What day of pregnancy should fenbendazole deworming occur?

A

(41 days)

4
Q

What day of pregnancy should prewhelping radiographs be taken?

A

(56 days)

5
Q

What day of pregnancy should the ultrasound pregnancy check be performed?

A

(28 days)

6
Q

If a dog presents for a pregnancy check at 28 days and you note resorption sites, what should you do next?

A

(Optimally you would have already done a thorough physical exam and if not, do one now; if dog appears systemically fine, have them come back in a few days for another check to see if resorption is progressing or not, if it is then further diagnostics are called for)

7
Q

(T/F) Physiologic embryonic resorption does not affect normal litter size.

A

(T, occurs when there is genetic abnormality of an embryo or if there is overcrowding)

8
Q

What are some bacterial causative agents of embryonic resorption/abortion? 8 answers, definitely don’t need to get them all.

A

(Brucella canis, E. coli, Staph, Strep, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma)

9
Q

What are some viral causative agents of embryonic resorption/abortion? 4 answers, definitely don’t need to get them all

A

(Canine herpes virus 1, parvovirus, distemper, canine adenovirus 1)

10
Q

Progesterone slowly increases/decreases (choose) as pregnancy progresses in dogs.

A

(Decreases, usually >20ng/ml for first half and >5ng/ml for second half)

11
Q

When monitoring a dog that is close to whelping, she will whelp within 24 hours of her temperature reaching what value?

A

(99 F)

12
Q

(T/F) You should confirm pregnancy prior to using prostaglandin treatment to terminate a potential pregnancy.

A

(T)

13
Q

How long can you wait after a misalliance to spay a dog?

A

(2 weeks, want to wait for heat to end but not too long as to complicate the surgery)

14
Q

(T/F) Embryo implantation occurs around day 19-21 in dogs, aglepristone must be given prior to that point to work.

A

(F, aglepristone can be given up to 45 days after a misalliance occurs, if it is given prior to implantation, it prevent implantation and if it is given after, it induces resorption)

15
Q

The first stage of labor usually lasts 6-12 hours but may be longer in what cases?

A

(Primiparous bitches)

16
Q

The second stage of labor usually lasts 2-12 hours but may last up to 24 hours in what cases?

A

(Large litters)

17
Q

What is the normal presentation of chorioallantoic fluid?

A

(Clear yellow fluid)

18
Q

(T/F) Lochia should not pass prior to the first puppy being born.

A

(T, this is a sign of dystocia)

19
Q

Greater than what time interval between puppies is a sign of dystocia?

A

(>2-3 hours)

20
Q

What are two ways to approximately age fetuses in utero when the breeding may not have been well managed, and when in gestation can those methods be used?

A

(Biparietal diameter during late gestation and inner chorionic cavity diameter in early gestation)

21
Q

(T/F) It is never normal for a fetus to have a heart rate below 190-200.

A

(F, can be normal during active uterine contractions but if there are no contractions, then it is abnormal)

22
Q

What two things do you look for to indicate appropriate fetal maturity, which can develop anywhere from 1-4 days prior to whelping?

A

(Continuous fetal GI peristalsis and clear corticomedullary distinction in the kidneys)

23
Q

Medical dystocia management should only be pursued when there are how many puppies left to deliver?

A

(2-4, 2 is Dr. Balogh’s suggestion but a textbook says 4)

24
Q

Why can putting the delivered puppies on a dam to nurse aid in the birth of additional puppies?

A

(Triggers the release of oxytocin)

25
Q

What are the normal signs of the first stage of labor and how long can it last before it is considered abnormal?

A

(Normal signs are nesting, panting, and anorexia and it can last up to 18 hours)

26
Q

After you note the body temperature of a bitch drops, there should be labor signs within what time period otherwise you should call a vet?

A

(Should be labor signs within 24 hours of temp drop and if that doesn’t start, call a vet)

27
Q

What is the maximum time stage two should take for the first puppy versus the subsequent puppies?

A

(First puppy should be out in an hour once active labor begins, subsequent puppies should be out in 30 minutes; if time goes over in either of those cases, call a vet)

28
Q

If it takes longer than what time for a bitch to start labor again between puppies, you should call a vet?

A

(>3 hours between puppies)

29
Q

Anytime what two types of discharge are seen associated with whelping, a vet should be called immediately?

A

(Black discharge or a moderate to large amount of fresh blood)

30
Q

What three things are caused by administration of prostaglandins?

A

(Luteolysis, myometrial contractions, and cervical dilation)

31
Q

In what scenarios is 10% calcium gluconate administered to whelping bitches?

A

(It she is hypocalcemia or in a eucalcemic dam 15 minutes prior to administering oxytocin to help with contractions)

32
Q

How many times can oxytocin be used per puppy?

A

(1-2x)

33
Q

What is the maximum dose per dog per whole treatment of oxytocin?

A

(20IU)

34
Q

For the cases listed below, state if medical management/vaginal delivery versus C-section are correct treatment options:

Obstruction with an abnormal fetal presentation/position/posture or fetal size

A

(Medical and c-section viable options)

35
Q

For the cases listed below, state if medical management/vaginal delivery versus C-section are correct treatment options:

Obstruction due to abnormal birth canal

A

(C-section only viable option)

36
Q

For the cases listed below, state if medical management/vaginal delivery versus C-section are correct treatment options:

Primary uterine inertia

A

(C-section)

37
Q

For the cases listed below, state if medical management/vaginal delivery versus C-section are correct treatment options:

Secondary uterine inertia with an obstruction

A

(Medical and c-section viable options)

38
Q

For the cases listed below, state if medical management/vaginal delivery versus C-section are correct treatment options:

Secondary uterine inertia without an obstruction

A

(Medical and c-section viable options)