what is the DNA structure?
made up of two strands twisted to form a double helix
how are the two strands of DNA held together?
weak hydrogen bonds between the bases
what are the base pairings?
Adenine-Thymine , Cytosine-Guanine
what is DNA made up of?
subunits called nucleotides
what is a nucleotide made up of?
3 parts; A base, A phosphate and a deoxyribose sugar
what is PCR?
it is a way of making many copies of target regions of DNA
what is stage 1 of PCR?
DNA is heated to between 92° and 98° to separate the two strands (DNA is denatured)
what is stage two of PCR?
DNA is cooled to between 50 and 65°C to allow primers to bind (anneal) to target sequences
what is stage 3 of PCR?
DNA is heated to between 70 and 80°C for heat-tolerant DNA polymerase to replicate the region of DNA
what is transcription?
transcription is the name of the process in which a copy of DNA is made
what is the copy of DNA made from transcription called?
messenger RNA (mRNA)
where does transcription occur?
what is translation?
mRNA which has been transcribed is translated into proteins by ribosomes in the cytoplasm
what is a triplet of bases on mRNA called?
what is a non coding region of DNA called?
what is a coding region of DNA called?
what is a mutation?
a random change in DNA structure/mass
what is a mutagenic agent?
a mutagenic agent increases the frequency of mutation
example of a mutagenic agent
mustard gas, radiation
what is a single gene mutation?
Single gene mutations involve a change in one of the base pairs
single gene mutation types
deletion, insertion, substitution
what is a frameshift mutation?
Frameshift mutations cause all of the codons and all of the amino acids after point of mutation to be changed
types of frameshift mutations
improving reliability of an experiment
complete experiment more than once and calculate an average
what is recombinant DNA technology?
recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering) is technology used to alter the genetic makeup of an organism
what is hibernation?
a form of dormancy in some animals (usually mammals) which allows them to survive during low temperatures or winter
why is hibernation useful?
it allows the metabolism to slow down during a time when food is scarce and maintaining body temperature requires too much energy
what kind of circulatory system do anphibians have?
incomplete double circulatory system
what is an incomplete double circulatory system?
The heart consists of only one ventricle and two atria. Therefore, some oxygenated blood (from the lungs) is mixed with deoxygenated blood from the body.
what kind of circulatory system do birds have?
a complete double circulatory system
what is a complete double circulatory system?
The heart consists of two atria and two ventricles which are separated. There is no mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood and the oxygenated blood can be pumped out at a higher pressure.
where does the citric acid cycle take place?
in the matrix of the mitochondria
what is released throughout the citric acid cycle?
how much energy is generated from citric acid cycle?
1 molecule per pyruvate
what happens to hydrogen ions and electrons?
they are removed by dehydrogenase enzymes and are accepted by NAD to form NADH
what happens in the citric acid cycle?
acetyl combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate
how many ATP molecules are produced in citric acid cycle