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Flashcards in Prelims Deck (51)
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1

Father of experimental psychology

Wilhelm Wundt

2

When: first psych lab

1879

3

4 goals of psychology?

describe, explain, predict, control behaviour

4

Characteristics of Modern Science: thinking objectively

Scientific Mentality

5

Characteristics of Modern Science: gather data systematically

gathering empirical data

6

Characteristics of Modern Science: should be backed up by a theory

seeking general principles

7

Characteristics of Modern Science: avoids biases; being open to new ideas

good thinking

8

Characteristics of Modern Science: accept uncertainty of their own conclusions; accept new discoveries

self-correlation

9

Characteristics of Modern Science: scientists meet frequently through professional and special interest groups and attend professional conferences to exchange info abt their work

publicizing results

10

Characteristics of Modern Science: should be able to repeat our procedure & have/get same results

replication

11

Objectives of Psychological Science: a systematic unbiased account of the observed characteristics of behaviour

Description

12

Objectives of Psychological Science: refers to the capacity for knowing in advance when certain behaviours would be expected to occur

Prediction

13

Objectives of Psychological Science: Understand what causes it to occur

Explanation

14

Objectives of Psychological Science: Application of what has been learned about behaviour

Control

15

Scientific Method, Tools of Psychological Science: systematic noting and recording of events

Observation

16

Scientific Method, Tools of Psychological Science: assignment of numerical values to objects/events/their characteristics accdg to conventional rules

measurement

17

Scientific Method, Tools of Psychological Science: manipulate variables; process undertaken to test a hypothesis that particular events will occur reliably in certain, specifiable situations

experimentation

18

degree to which a research design allows us to make causal statements

internal validity

19

generalizablity or applicability to people and situations outside the research setting

external validity

20

often preferred bc they may have external validity, their generalizability to the real world be more apparent

nonexperimental design

21

used to study behaviours in natural settings to explore unique or rare occurances or to sample personal info

nonexperimental methods

22

description of on'es immediate experiences; we begin with personal experience as a source of data

phenomenology

23

no manipulated & data may consist of any immediate experience; no constraints are imposed

antecedent

24

an observation that eventually led to our understanding of the spectral sensitivity of the rods and cones of the eye

The Purkinje Phenomenon

25

He used the phenomenological approach. - dealt with basic psychological issues, including habits, emotions, consciousness, and the stream of thought.

William James

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Phenomenology _______ behavior but __________ behavior.

descibes; can't explain

27

Descriptive record of a single individual's experiences or behaviours or both, kept by an outside observer

case study

28

Nonexperimental approaches used in the field or in real-life settings

field study

29

The researcher uses a prearranged strategy for recording observations in which each observation is recorded using specific rules or guidelines, so that observations are more objective

systematic observation

30

Kind of field osbervation: Here the researcher actually becomes part of the group being studied.

Participant-Observer Studies

31

Descriptive research method in which already existing records are reexamined for a new purpose
Causal inferences cannot be supported
Valuable information for further study on these important issues was gained (without the great expense of finding the kind of subjects) by accessing and reanalyzing information from existing data archives in a creative new way

Archival study

32

Relies on words rather than numbers for the data being collected
Focuses on self-reports, personal narratives, and expression of ideas, memories, feelings and thoughts
Big-Q, candidate for a paradigm shift within psychology

Qualitative research

33

Also called empirical phenomenology
Rely on the researcher’s own experiences or on experiential data provided by other sources

contemporary phenomenology

34

useful way of obtaining information about people's opinions, attitudes, preferences, and experiences simply by asking them.
allow us to gather data about experiences, feelings, thoughts, and motives that are hard to observe directly.

Survey research

35

two most common survey techniques in psychology research.

written questionnaires & interviews

36

1st step in constructing survey

map out research objectives

37

2nd step in constructing survey

design survey items

38

3 kinds of questions

closed, open-ended, double-barreled

39

tendencies to respond to questions or test items in specific ways, regardless of the content

response styles

40

apt to agree with a question regardless of its manifest content. , also called as ________

yea-sayers; response acquiescence

41

tend to disagree no matter what they are asked. also called as ________

nay-sayers; response deviation

42

the tendency of subjects to alter their responses if they are aware of the presence of an observer

reactivity

43

probability sampling: -- any member of the population has an equal opportunity to be selected, and the outcome of the sampling procedure cannot be predicted ahead of time by any known law. Random selection is also a common assumption of the statistical tests used most often to analyze data.

random selection

44

PS: a portion of the whole population is selected in an unbiased way.
To obtain a simple random sample, all members of the population being studied must have an equal chance of being selected.

simple random sampling

45

PS: In cases where all members of a population are known and can be listed in an unbiased way, a researcher may select every nth person from the population
The n is determined by the size of the population and the desired sample size

systematic random sampling

46

PS: When the population is known to contain distinct subgroups, researchers often prefer another variation of probability sampling known as?

stratified random sampling

47

PS: When the population of interest is very large; it is often too costly or impractical to randomly select subjects one by one
Researchers sample entire clusters, or naturally occurring groups, that exist within the population

cluster sampling

48

Nonprobability sampling: Researchers select samples through predetermined quotas that are intended to reflect the makeup of the population.

quota sampling

49

NPS: Obtained by using any groups who happen to be available.
This is consider a weak form of sampling because the researcher exercises no control over the representativeness of the sample

convenience sampling

50

NPS: When nonrandom samples are selected because the individuals reflect a specific purpose of the study

purposive sampling

51

NPS: Researcher locates one or few people who fit the sample criterion and asks these people to locate or lead them to additional individuals

snowball sampling