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Flashcards in Prenatal/Newborn Deck (81)
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1
Q

In late pregnancy __________ is,
~Primarily made up of fetal urine & lung fluid
~Fluid will increase in volume
~Then decreases slowly by the 40th Week

A

AMNIOTIC FLUID

2
Q

~The inner membrane surrounding the fetus
~Where the fetus floats
~Protects the embryo from organisms that might infect
the Mother’s cervix
~Important for hormone production
~Plays a role in the onset of labor

A

AMNION

3
Q

Expelled when baby is delivered

A

PLACENTA

4
Q

What supplies food to and carries wastes away from

the fetus?

A

The Woman’s Blood

5
Q

The naval, or the site where the umbilical cord is

joined to the fetus

A

UMBILICUS

6
Q

Substance that protects the cord

A

Wharton’s Jelly

7
Q

The unborn offspring in the post embryonic period
(7-8 weeks after fertilization), which develops in the
uterus. This period lasts from the beginning of
week 9-birth

A

FETUS

8
Q

How is gestation/pregnancy divided?

A

Three–3 month periods or

3 Trimesters

9
Q

Connects the fetal blood vessels contained in the villi
of the placenta to those in the fetal body. Consists of
2 arteries and one large vein twisted around
each other

A

UMBILICAL CORD

10
Q

What is the total length of Gestation?

A

~40 Weeks
~10 Lunar Months
~9 Calendar Months

11
Q

The now implanted Morula is called an ________?

A

EMBRYO

12
Q

An organ joining woman and fetus during pregnancy
~Rich Blood Supply
~Carries away waste for excretion by the Mother
~Supplies food and oxygen
~Slows maternal immune response so the fetal tissue
is not rejected
~Produces hormones that help maintain the
pregnancy

A

PLACENTA

13
Q

The fertilized ovum/zygote is the?

A

Beginning of potential Human Development

14
Q

What determines the basic embryonic structure?

A

GENES

15
Q

Is carried down the fallopian tubes and into the uterus;
the uterus has prepared, as it’s lining becomes rich
with nutrients

A

MORULA

16
Q

Cell that results from the fusion of two mature germ
cells. Is the beginning of potential individual human
development and divides rapidly until it forms a ball of
about 16 identical cells

A

ZYGOTE

17
Q

Fluid filled sac that surrounds the Fetus?

A

AMNION

18
Q

The critical stage of pregnancy. All the organs and
structures of the human are formed (conception-8th
week). This time is vulnerable due to potentially
harmful influences that could cause congenital defects,
birth defects, and effect the development of the fetus

A

EMBRYO STAGE

19
Q

The Zygote is now called _______ after dividing rapidly?

A

MORULA

20
Q

~Embryo is .75 cm to 1cm in length
~Foundations for the nervous system, GI system, skin,
bones, and lungs are formed
~Buds of arms and legs begin to form

A

4 WEEKS

21
Q
~Embryo is 2.5cm in length and weigh 4g
~Embryo is markedly bent
~Head is large in size owing to brain development
~Sex differentiation begins
~Centers of the bone ossify
~Heart pulsates
A

8 WEEKS

22
Q

3 factors that can cause defects?

A

~Congenital Defects (defective gene)
~Environmental Factors (tobacco, alcohol)
~Medications (effect development)

23
Q

What are the most common congenital birth defects?

A

~Heart Defects
~Cleft lip/palate
~Down Syndrome
~Spina Bifida

24
Q

What is a defective gene responsible for?

A

Congenital Defects

25
Q

What is the “head to toe principle”?

A

Growth and development follow a predictable pattern,

literally from “head to toe”

26
Q

~Provides protection (cushions the fetus from injury)
~Regulates temperature
~Allows for movement by the fetus (allows normal
musculoskeletal development)

A

Amniotic Fluid

27
Q

Mucous layer of the uterus, which forms the maternal
portion of the placenta during pregnancy (lining of the
uterus)

A

ENDOMETRIUM

28
Q

Passageways for the ova between the ovaries and the

uterus.

A

FALLOPIAN TUBES (oviduct)

29
Q

The union of two cells the ovum and sperm. Usually occurs 2 weeks after a woman’s last normal menstrual
period, and when the ovum is in the outer third of the
fallopian tube.

A

FERTILIZATION/CONCEPTION

30
Q

Male cell/Y Chromosome

A

SPERM

31
Q

Female cell/X Chromosome

A

OVUM

32
Q

Before birth

A

PRENATAL

33
Q

The branch of medicine concerned with pregnancy

and birth

A

OBSTETRICS

34
Q

A pregnant woman

A

GRAVIDA

35
Q

Pregnancy is also called?

A

ANTEPARTUM

36
Q

How long is a trimester?

A

3 MONTHS

37
Q

Begins on the first day of the woman’s last period and

ends on the last day of week 13

A

FIRST TRIMESTER

38
Q

Includes weeks 14-27

A

SECOND TRIMESTER

39
Q

Begins at week 28 and extends until the pregnancy is expected to end/40 weeks

A

THIRD TRIMESTER

40
Q

The period of time that occurs from the moment of
conception (sperm fertilizes egg) until the birth of the
newborn. It’s 40 weeks long.

A

GESTATION

41
Q

A new organism that has implanted in the first stage of development (conception-about 8th week)

A

EMBRYO

42
Q

CEPHALOCAUDAL

A

Means growth and development follows a predictable

“head to tail” pattern before and after birth

43
Q
~Fetus is 7cm-9cm long and weighs 28g
~Fingers/Toes are distinct
~Placenta is complete
~Fetal circulation is complete
~Organ systems are complete
A

12 WEEKS

44
Q
~Fetus is 10cm-17cm long and weighs 55g-120g
~Sex is differentiated
~Rudimentary Kidneys secrete urine
~Heartbeat is present
~Nasal septum and palate closes
A

16 WEEKS

45
Q

~Fetus is 25cm long and weighs 223g
~Lanugo convers entire body
~Fetal movements are felt by Mom
~Heart sounds are perceptible by auscultation
~First point where fetus is considered viable

A

20 WEEKS

46
Q

~Fetus is 28cm-36cm long and weighs 680g
~Skin appears wrinkled
~Vernix Caseosa appears
~Eyebrows/fingernail develop

A

24 WEEKS

47
Q
~Fetus is 35cm long and weighs 1,200g
~Skin is red
~Pupillary membrane disappears from eyes
~Fetus has excellent chance of survival 
~Eyes open/close
A

28 WEEKS

48
Q
~Fetus is 38cm-43cm long and weighs 1,500-2,500g
~Fetus is viable
~Eyelids open
~Fingerprints are set
~Vigorous fetal movements occur
A

32 WEEKS

49
Q

~Fetus is 42cm-49cm long and weighs 1,900-2,700g
~Face/body have a loose wrinkled appearance
(subcutaneous fat deposit)
~Lanugo starts to disappear
~Amniotic Fluid decreases

A

36 WEEKS

50
Q

~Fetus is 48cm-52cm long and weighs 3,000g
~Skin is smooth
~Eyes are uniformly slate colored
~Bones of skull are ossified/nearly together at sutures

A

40 WEEKS

51
Q

When is a fetus viable?

A

A viable fetus of less than 24 weeks is UNUSUAL and will need significant healthcare resources for maintenance
of life.

52
Q

When is the Critical Phase of Human Development?

A

The first 8 weeks of pregnancy (all major systems of

the embryo develop during this time)

53
Q

A change is body size and structure

A

GROWTH

54
Q

A change in function

A

DEVELOPMENT

55
Q

________ and ______ occurs in an orderly sequence
: a person must accomplish a simple developmental task
before attempting another

A

GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

56
Q

“Head to Tail” (baby lifts it’s head up before sitting up)

A

CEPHALOCAUDAL

57
Q

CEPHALO

A

HEAD

58
Q

CAUDAL

A

TAIL

59
Q

“Center to outside” (babies roll over before grasping

small items)

A

PROXIMODISTAL

60
Q

PROXIMO

A

CENTER

61
Q

DISTAL

A

OUT/OUTSIDE (furthest form an origin of the part)

62
Q

Growth and Development progresses from _____ to _____

A

Simple to more complex

63
Q

Who/What is involved/influence an infant’s growth and development?

A

~Involves the entire child and family
~Culture, ethnicity, and religion can influence the process
~It is inclusive and holistic
~Genetic factors inherited from the parents

64
Q

All aspects of growth and development are influenced
by each other (child cannot control bowel movements (developmental) until the muscles are mature enough (growth) this is called?

A

INTERDEPENDENT

65
Q

A human being in the first 4 weeks of life

A

NEWBORN

66
Q

A newborn in the first 28 days of life

A

NEONATE

67
Q

The babies reactions to both _____ and ________
help the child to grow and develop physically, socially,
intellectually, and emotionally

A

Internal and External Stimuli

68
Q

What is the caregiver’s main focus on of a newborn?

A

Safety and the babies ability to thrive

69
Q

What are the characteristics of a newborn?

A

~Weight ranges from 5.5-9.5lbs (healthy)
~Average weight is 7.5lbs, girls tend to weigh less
~Length varies from 18-22in, boys tend to be longer
~Head is large (avg 13-14in)
~Chest is a little smaller (10-22in)
~Lanugo may be seen on the face, shoulders, back
~Typically sleep 17 hrs a day, but awaken easliy
~Cry when hungry or uncomfortable
~Can see shades of light and darkness
~Can hear at birth
~Touch is well developed
~Taste and smell are less well known

70
Q

“Soft spots” that are formed at the junctions of the individual skull bones. Do not fuse completely before birth to allow for passage through the birth canal

A

FONTANEL

71
Q

Thin fine downy hair that covers the body of the fetus

A

LANUGO

72
Q

What is it called when they accomplish skills and abilities in predictable patterns and within general age-specific timeframes

A

ORDERLY SEQUENCE

73
Q

When stroked on the lip or cheek, the newborn reacts by turning the head toward the direction of the stimulus

A

ROOTING REFLEX

74
Q

Newborn tightly grasps finger or other object placed into his/her hand

A

PALMER GRASP REFLEX

75
Q

Sudden noises or jarring movements cause the newborn

to throw out the arms and to draw up the legs

A

MORO’S/STARTLE REFLEX

76
Q

When the newborn is lying on the back and turns the head to one side, the leg and arm of that side extend, and those of the opposite side flex

A

TONIC NECK REFLEX

77
Q

Hold the newborn’s foot and stroke up the lateral edge and across the ball of the foot. The big toe fans out and hyper extends in a positive response

A

BABINSKI REFLEX

78
Q

The newborn steps with one foot and then the other, when held upright with the feet touching a surface

A

STEPPING REFLEX

79
Q

As the newborn grasps the nipple with the lips, sucking should be automatic

A

SUCKING REFLEX

80
Q

Existing at birth (may be genetic/inherited or acquired

A

CONGENITAL

81
Q

What are some Caregiver tips?

A

~Ensure the newborn’s safety and ability to thrive
~Need to be able to recognize each child’s unique natural abilities
~The challenge of parenting is to help children develop in such a way that they maintain their eagerness to learn
~Understanding normal patterns for growth and developments are important; that way you are more apt to catch a delay in learning or abnormal behavior quickly