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Flashcards in Preparation and training methods Deck (38)
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1
Q

What is quantitative data?

A

It contains factual information and numerical values.

2
Q

What is qualitative data?

A

It is subjective, it looks at feelings, opinions and emotions.

3
Q

What is objective data?

A

It is based upon facts and is measurable.
In fitness testing, objective tests involve a measurement and are therefore more likely to be accurate.

4
Q

What is subjective data?

A

It is based upon personal opinions, assumptions, interpretations and beliefs.

5
Q

What is validity?

A

When the test actually measures what it set out to.
To assess the validity of a fitness test:
Is the research method relevant and does it do exactly what it sets out to do?
Is the test sport-specific?

6
Q

What is reliability?

A

It means that a test produces results that are consistent and can be repeated with the same outcome.
To ensure a test is reliable:
The tester should be experienced.
Equipment should be standardised.
Sequencing of tests is important.
Repetition of tests should be possible to avoid human error.

7
Q

What is a warm up?

A

It helps prepare the body for exercise:
The first stage is to perform some kind of cardiovascular exercise such as jogging, gently increasing your heart rate.
The second stage includes stretching/ flexibility exercises, especially with the joints and muscles that will be most active during the training session. The type of stretching depends on the activity.
The third stage should involve the movement patterns that are to be carried out, e.g. practicing shooting in netball.

8
Q

What is static stretching?

A

Stretching while not moving and can be active or passive.
Active static stretching involves the performer working on one joint, pushing it beyond its point of resistance, and lengthening the muscle and connective tissue surrounding it.
Passive is when a stretch occurs with the help of an external force, such as a partner, another part of the body, gravity or a wall.

9
Q

What is ballistic stretching?

A

Involves performing a stretch with swinging or bouncing movements, to push a body part even further.
It is important that this type of stretching should only be performed by an individual who is extremely flexible e.g. gymnast, who will try to push their body beyond the limits of their range of movement in comparison to a games player.

10
Q

What are the requirements of a stretch?

A

It is important to start it slowly, is sport-specific and, if it is painful, the stretch is stopped.
Stretches should be balanced between agonists and antagonists, and if the stretch is static it should be help for approximately 30 seconds.

11
Q

What are the physiological benefits of a warm up?

A

Reduces the possibility of an injury by increasing the elasticity of muscle tissue.
An increase in the speed of nerve impulse conduction allows us to be more alert, improving reaction time.
It allows efficient movement at the joints through an increased production of synovial fluid.
It allows for rehearsal of movement, so the performer is practicing the same skills they use in their activity.
It facilitates mental rehearsal, stress or anxiety reduction and psychological preparation.

12
Q

What are the physiological benefits of a warm up - blood?

A

It supplies an adequate blood flow to the heart to increase its efficiency.
Adrenaline increases heart rate and dilates capillaries. This allows more oxygen to be delivered to the skeletal muscles.
Muscle temperature increases and this will first enable oxygen to dissociate more easily from haemoglobin and allow for an increase in enzyme activity, making energy readily available through better chemical reactions.

13
Q

What are the physiological benefits of a cool down?

A

It consists of some form of light exercise to keep the heart rate elevated.
It keeps the skeletal muscle pump working.
It maintains venous return.
It prevents blood pooling in the veins.
It limits the effects of DOMS.
It removes lactic acid.
It reduces heart rate and body temperature.

14
Q

What is specificity?

A

It is important to make sure the training you do is relevant to your chosen activity.
You need to consider whether you are using the same energy system, muscle fibre type, skills and movements.
The intensity and duration of the training should also be similar to your activity.

15
Q

What is progressive overload?

A

Where the performer gradually trains harder throughout their training programme as their body adapts.
In weight training - the muscles will be overloaded every few weeks as the amount of weight lifted is increased.
It is important to not overload too much too soon, doing it gradually reduces the risk of injury.

16
Q

What is reversibility?

A

If training stops, then the adaptations that have occurred will deteriorate.

17
Q

What is recovery?

A

Rest days are needed to allow the body to recover from training.
Research suggests that the 3:1 ratio should be used, where the performer trains hard for three days and then rests for one.

18
Q

What is the F in FITT?

A

Frequency, so you need to increase the number of training sessions, increase the work period or number of sets, and decrease the number of rest periods.

19
Q

What is the I in FITT?

A

Intensity, so to improve you must train harder.
To implement this you may use heart rate/ Borg scale/ one rep max to help.

20
Q

What is T in FITT?

A

The time spent training, so this needs to gradually increase and rest periods need to decrease.

21
Q

What is the second T in FITT?

A

The type of exercise, using different forms of exercise maintains motivation, but the type chosen needs to be relevant to your activity.
For example, if an improvement in stamina is the aim of a training programme, there are a variety of different types of training that can be used to maintain motivation, such as continuous, circuit and fartlek training.
However if you are a games player you needs to make sure that these types of training involve running, so that you are exercising your muscles in a similar way to how you use them in a game.

22
Q

What is periodisation?

A

It involves dividing the year into blocks or sections where specific training occurs.
Elite performers need to programme their training year very carefully so they can improve performance but also reduce the risk of injury.

23
Q

What is the macrocycle?

A

It involves long term planning.
In rugby it may be the length of the season, while for an athlete it could be four years as they build up to the Olympics.
There are three distinct periods.

24
Q

What are the stages of the macro cycle?

A

The preparation period involves general conditioning and the development of fitness levels.
The competition period is where the performer refines skills and techniques, as well as maintaining fitness levels.
The transition period is the rest and recovery stage. This phase allows the athlete to recharge physically and mentally and ensures an injury-free start to the forthcoming season.

25
Q

What is the mesocycle?

A

It is usually a 4-12 week period of training with a particular focus.
A sprinter for example will focus on power, reaction time and speed, whereas an endurance performer will focus more on strength and cardio-respiratory endurance.

26
Q

What is the microcycle?

A

One week or a few days of training that is repeated throughout the length of the mesocycle.

27
Q

What is tapering?

A

Where there is a reduction in the volume and/or intensity of training prior to a major competition.
This usually occurs a few days beforehand but can depend on the event or type of competition.

28
Q

What is peaking?

A

Planning and organising training by tapering prepares the athlete so they are at their peak both physically and mentally for a major competition.

29
Q

What is continuous training?

A

It works on developing aerobic endurance.
It involves low-intensity exercise for long periods of time without rest intervals, such as jogging, swimming and cycling.
As a result, improvements in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems take place, which increases the ability to take up, transport and use oxygen more efficiently.

30
Q

What is fartlek training?

A

The Swedish word for speed-play.
This is a slightly different method of continuous training, where the pace of the run is varied to stress both the aerobic energy system due to its continuous nature and the anaerobic energy system through the high-intensity bursts of energy.
This is a much more demanding type of training and will improve an individual’s stamina and recovery times.

31
Q

What is interval training?

A

It is predominantly used by elite athletes to improve anaerobic power.
It is a form of training in which periods or intervals of high-intensity work are followed with recovery periods.
It is very versatile, as it can be adapted to suit a variety of anaerobic needs.

32
Q

What should be considered to plan an interval training session?

A

Duration of the work interval.
Intensity or speed of the work interval.
Duration of the recovery period.
Number of work intervals and recovery periods.

33
Q

What is circuit training?

A

The athlete performs a series of exercises at a set of stations.
When planning a circuit, it is important to decide on the number and variety of sessions, the number of repetitions or amount of time spent at each station and the length of the rest interval.
The resistance used is the athlete’s body weight, and the layout of each exercise should ensure that the same body part is not exercised continuously to allow for recovery.
A circuit can be for any aspect of fitness but tends to be used for muscular endurance.

34
Q

What is weight training?

A

It can be used by everyone to develop muscular strength.
It involves doing a series of resistance exercises through the use of free weights or fixed-weight machines, in terms of sets and repetitions.

35
Q

What are sets and reps?

A

Rep is the number of times you do a particular weight exercise and a set is the number of cycles of repetitions that you do.
For example, a performer may squat 10 times, and have done one set of ten repetitions.

36
Q

What are the 4 classes of exercises?

A

Shoulders and arms e.g. bench press, curls and pull down.
Trunk and back e.g. sit up and back hyper-extension.
Legs, e.g. squat, calf raise and leg press.
All body exercises, e.g. power clean, snatch and dead lift.
The choice of exercises should relate to the muscle groups used in sport, both the agonists and antagonists.

37
Q

How is a weight session determined?

A

Before a programme can be designed, it is important to determine the maximum amount of weight a performer can lift with one repetition (1 rep max).
Then, if maximum strength is the goal, it will be necessary to lift high weights with low repetitions.
If muscular endurance is the goal, it will be necessary to perform more repetitions of lighter weights, for example three sets of ten repetitions at approximately 50% of maximum strength.

38
Q

What is PNF?

A

An advanced stretching technique.
It a form of passive stretching, where the stretch position is held by something other than the agonist muscles, for example a partner or wall.
PNF is considered to be one of the most effective forms of flexibility training for increasing range of movement.