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Flashcards in Presentation Buzz Words Deck (162):
1

Ground glass appearance on HRCT

Pulmonary fibrosis

2

Wedge-shape infarct CXR

PE

3

Tram-line shadowing

Bronchiectasis

4

Erythema nodosum (very painful)

Conditions - Crohn's & Sarcoid
Infection - TB, Syphilis & Strep
Oestrogen related - Pregnancy & OCP

5

String sign stenosis on barium enema

Crohn's disease
Colon Cancer
Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis
Carcinoid

6

Lead pipe sign, thumbprinting AXR

UC

7

Sentinel loop AXR (=dilated bowel from local ileus)

RUQ Pancreatitis, LUQ Cholecystitis, RIF appendicitis

8

Cotton wool spots retina

Hypertensive retinopathy
Diabetic retinopathy

9

Recurrent chest infections + steatorrhoea + infertile + sweat test

CF

10

Fine crepitations

APO, pulmonary fibrosis

11

Pleuritic chest pain

PE, pneumonia, pneumothorax, pericarditis

12

Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy + hyperCalcaemia + high serum ACE

Sarcoid

13

Early onset emphysema & liver disease

Alpha1-Antitrypsin deficiency

14

Hay exposure + fever + cough + SOB hours after exposure

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis

15

Clubbing

C yanotic heart disease
L ung diseases
A bscess
B ronchiectasis
C ystic fibrosis
D on’t say COPD!!!!
E mpyema
F ibrosis
U lceratice colitis + Crohn’s (Inflammatory bowel diseases)
B iliary cirrhosis
B irth defect
I nfective endocarditis
N eoplasm (Lung Ca, mesothelioma)
G I malabsorption (Coeliac disease)

16

Pneumonia + Positive cold agglutinins exposure

Mycoplasma pneumonia

17

Midline neck mass that moves on swallowing & on tongue protrusion

Thyroglossal cyst (vs Thyroid goitre = does not move with tongue protrusion)

18

Eye 'down and out'

CN III palsy (Occulomotor nerve)

19

Bitemporal hemianopia

Pituitary adenoma

20

Homonymous hemianopia

Optic radiation injury or occipital cortex injury

21

Superior quadrant-anopia

Temporal lobe lesion

22

Anosmia + rhinorrhea + 'racoon eyes'

Basal skull fracture

23

Sudden onset 'kicked in back of head' headache + N/V

Subarachnoid haemorrhage

24

Testicular swelling, can't palpate above, can palpate epididymis and testis separately, non-transluminable, +ve cough impulse

Inguinal hernia

25

Macrocytic anaemia+ glossitis + periph neuropathy

B12 deficiency (cobalamin)

26

Macrocytic anaemia + phenytoin or trimethoprim or methotrexate

Folate deficiency

27

Nystagmus, ophthalmoplegia, ataxia

B1 deficiency (thiamine) = Wernike's encephalopathy

28

Macrocytic anaemia + slow relaxing reflexes + thin hair

Hypothyroidism

29

Microcytic anaemia + chronic NSAIDs

Iron deficiency anaemia

30

Young African + anaemia + jaundice + hepatosplenomegaly + priapism + 'Fever & chest pain'

Sickle cell anaemia (with 'Sickle Chest')

31

Skull bossing, maxillary hypertrophy

Beta-Thalassaemia, Acromegaly

32

Protruding sternum, varus legs, lumbar lordosis

Ricketts

33

Internuclear opthalmoplegia

MS

34

Young female patient presents with random eye symptoms and 2 unrelated neurological signs

MS

35

Best test: anti-endomysial, others are anti-transglutaminase, anti-gliadin (IgA/G/E), low IgA levels

Coeliac's

36

Aversion to smoking + RUQ pain

Acute hepatitis

37

Middle aged WOMAN + pruritus, jaundice, pigmentation, xanthomata

PBC

38

Middle aged MAN + pruiritus, jaundice, abdominal pain, increased ALP + UC

PSC

39

RUQ pain + jaundice + fever (charcot's triad)

Ascending cholangitis

40

Confusion + ataxia + opthalmaplegia

Wernicke's encephalopathy

41

Pork + Reiter's syndrome + unpasteurised milk

Yersinia

42

Hamburgers + bloody + HUS + toxic megacolon

EHEC

43

Traveller's

ETEC

44

Enclosed institutions, education, jail

Shigella (if small bloody stools), mycoplasma (if respiratory)

45

Chicken + rose spot rash

Salmonella if systemic fever causes other infections

46

Milk or poultry or meat

Campylobacter jejuni (3-5 days) - most common in Australia

47

Meat + gas + bubble rap skin (in skin infection - subcutaneous emphysema = gas gangrene)

C. perfringens

48

Upper GI nausea and vomitting within 6 hours

Staph aureus

49

Rice water stool + comma shaped and shooting star motility on dark film microscopy

Vibrio cholera treat with up to 50L of fluids within 5 days

50

Toxin A

C. diff

51

Numerous calcified nodules

TB, Histoplasmosis, varicella pneumonitis, CRF = HardCore TV

52

RIF + recent viral bronchitis

Mesenteric adenitis

53

Foot drop

Common peroneal nerve

54

Wrist drop + fracture of humeral shaft

Radial nerve

55

Clawed hand

Ulnar nerve

56

Thenar atrophy

Median nerve

57

Deltoid atrophy

Axillary nerve

58

Winged scapula

Long thoracic nerve

59

ADDERS = Adduction, external rotation and shortening of hip

Neck of femur fracture

60

Fractured clavicle

Broad sling

61

Undisplaced fracture of humerus

Collar and cuff sling

62

Loss of sensation just below the shoulder (i.e. deltoid)

Axillary nerve damage secondary to anterior dislocation

63

Painful shoulder locked in medial rotation after seizure

Posterior dislocation

64

Stiffness history, but previously very painful

Adhesive capsulitis

65

Twisting injury + locked in

Meniscal tear

66

Carpet layer with swelling over the patella

Pre-patellar bursitis (housemaid's bursitis)

67

Question mark posture

Ankylosing spondylitis

68

Oligospermia

Sulfasalazine

69

Swollen gum hypertrophy

Cyclosporin

70

Intramuscular DMARD that gives you itchy erythematous rash all over the body (exfoliative dermatitis)

Gold and sulphonamides

71

Retinopathy

Hydroxychloroquine

72

Gallow's traction

Kid with femoral fracture

73

Thoracic scoliosis + vertebral wedge shaped thoracic XR

Scheuermann's disease

74

Prophylaxis of VT

Oral amiodraone

75

Loud S1 Mitral

MS (S for strong)

76

Soft S1 Mitral

MR (R for reduced)

77

Increased Na+ + decreased K+/H+ + hypertension

Conn's (hyperaldosteronism)

78

Large A wave + slow y descent

TS

79

Pulseless electrical activity = asystole = 4Hs + 4Ts

CPR
+ adrenaline/vasopressin
+ atropine

80

Shockable rhythms (pulseless VT/VF)

CPR
+ defib
+ adrenaline/vasopressin
+ magnesium
+ anti-arrhythmic

81

Bilateral Cavitating bronchopneumonia after influenza/elderly/IVDU

Staph aureus

82

Pathergy reaction is +ve

Behcet's disease
Pyoderma gangrenosum

83

ADD FER = Adduction + flexion + external rotation

Femoral shaft fracture

84

Thumb printing on AXR

UC

85

Epigastric pain relieved by eating

Duodenal ulcer

86

Epigastric pain made worse by eating

Gastric ulcer

87

Duodenal ulcer cause

99% H. pylori

88

Dyspepsia for a while

Gastric carcinoma

89

Anaemia and LOW + mass in RIF

Caecal carcinoma

90

Suspect pseudocyst

CT abdomen

91

Middle aged man, joint pain (shows chondrocalcinosis), CLD (bronze diabetes) + dilated cardiomyopathy

Haemochromatosis

92

Raised serum iron and ferritin with decreased total iron binding capacity

Haemochromatosis

93

Greenish-brown ring that can be seen at the corneoscleral junction. It is caused by copper deposition in Descemet's membrane

Wilson's disease

94

Increased unconjugated bilirubin during fasting/illness/dehydration

Gilbert's syndrome

95

ALP raised + female

PBC

96

Tender breast + pyrexial

Mastitis caused by staph aureus

97

Visible punctum

Sebaceous cyst

98

Slow growing + lobulated mass

Lipoma

99

A 28-year-old man presents with a painless swelling on the dorsum of the right hand. Examination reveals a smooth, spherical, tense, 1.5 cm swelling. The overlying skin can be drawn over it

Ganglion cyst

100

Mobile over subcutanoues tissues with a central necrotic core

Keratocanthoma

101

A 28-year-old man presents with halitosis and regurgitation of food. He has a lump in the posterior triangle (behind the sternocleidomastoid between thyropharyngeal and cricopharyngeal muscles)

Pharyngeal pouch

102

Usually painless unless there is infection involved. The back of the cyst is deep to the sternocleidomastoid and it is not very mobile because it is attached to/closely associated with surrounding structures

Branchial cyst

103

Measuring lead

Whole blood lead concentration corrected for haematocrit (not serum lead)

104

Four degreses of haemorrhoids

First degree - remains in the rectum
Second degree - pops out on defecation, but pops back in afterwards
Third degree - pops out on defecation and needs finger to push it back in
Fourth degree - cannot be reduced

105

Coeliac disease

Gastrointestinal lymphoma

106

Psoas shadow + senile loop of proximal jejunum

Acute pancreatitis

107

40-year-old woman presents with skin hyperpigmentation after bilateral adrenalectomy

Nelson's syndrome

108

Diagnostic test for acromegaly

Oral glucose tolerance test

109

30-year-old woman with poor diet complains of bleeding gums

Patient has scurvy hence deficient in vitamin C

110

Symmetrical dermatitis on sun exposed skin, diarrhoea

Pellagra from loss of nictonic acid (vitamin B3).
Diarrhoea, dermatitis, dementia & death

111

Amphotericin + prominent U waves

Hypokalaemia

112

Long term TPN + crusting around the nostrils and corner of mouth

Zinc deficiency

113

Treating hypercalcaemia associated with malignancy

Bisphosphonates

114

Increased urine osmolality = increase in reabsorption of water + decreased plasma osmolality

SIADH

115

Decreased urine osmolality + increased plasma osmolality

Diabetes insipidus (either cranial when pituitary not secreting OR nephrogenic when kidenys are not sensitive to ADH)

116

Hyponatermia + hyperlipidaemia

Pseudohyponatraemia refers to a spuriously low plasma sodium concentration caused by hyperlipidaemia/hyperproteinaemia

117

PTH-releasing tumour

Squamous cell carcinoma (non-small cell lung)

118

Painful proximal motor neuropathy affecting the lower limbs, followed by weakness and wasting of the thigh muscles

Diabetic amyotrophy

119

Diabetes plus pro-thrombotic state

HONK

120

T1DM with hypoglycaemia with BG of 2mmol/L

IV 50% glucose

121

Livedo reticularis = mottled reticulated vascular pattern that appears like a lace-like purplish discoloration of the lower extremities; look for on buttocks and legs

Cholesterol emboli

122

Hyperkalaemia + low bicarbonate in renal failure

Metabolic acidosis

123

Abdominal pain + steatorrhoea + diabetes

Chronic pancreatitis secondary to alcoholism

124

Health care worker + rigors

TB

125

Pleuritic chest pain + cough + bone pain/joint pain (i.e. multi-organ) + Northern Territory

Melioidosis

126

Patient complains of enlarged glands more painful when drinking alcohol

Hodgkin's lymphoma

127

Pregnant lady + UTI

Cephalexin or amoxicillin + clavaunic acid

128

First line medication for chlamydia

Tetracyclines (don't use in pregnancy)

129

Teeth staining + oesophagitis + thrush

Tetracylince side effects

130

Yellow offensive vaginal discharge + motile flagellate organism on wet film

Trichomonas vaginalis

131

Trichomonas vaginalis/flagellate organism

Metronidazole

132

Impetigo = a weeping, exudative area with a characteristic honey coloured crusting on the surface

Staph aureus

133

Burrows in digital web spaces

Scabies (treat with topical malathion)

134

Invasive aspergillosis

IV amphotericin

135

Tinea pedis

Terbinafine

136

Warfarin + fungal toe-nails, what to avoid?

The -azoles are CYP450 inhibitors hence enhance toxicity of warfarin

137

CMV retinitis = mozzarella and tomato pizza appearance

Ganciclovir

138

Hepatitis C

Interferon alpha + ribavirin

139

Vomitting, hyperventilation, tinnitus and sweating + respiratory alkalosis (caused by hyperventilation) followed by metabolic acidosis

Aspirin overdose = give charcoal

140

Drowsy + hypotensive + signs of respiratory depression

Overdose on diazepam = give flumazenil

141

Dilated pupils, blurred vision and seizures + tachycardic and wide QRS complexes

Overdose on TCA = give sodium bicarbonate as antidote

142

Illegal drugs that dilate the pupil

TCA = tricyclics, cocaine, amphetamine

143

Illegal drugs that constrict the pupil

Heroin = treat with naloxone

144

Smell of almonds on his breath + confusion + cyanosis

Cyanide poisoning

145

Headache + drowsy + vomitting + flushed cherry-pink skin

Carbon monoxide poisoning - treat with hyperbaric oxygen therapy

146

Antidote for organophosphate insecticides (constricted pupils + anti-SLUDGE)

Atropine

147

Paints + metal workers + water pipes

Lead poisoning

148

Overdose on lead/mercury

Give dimercaprol

149

HIV therapy presents with circumoral paraesthesia + glucose intolerance + hypertriglyceridemia

Protease inhibitors (end in avir)

150

Photosensitivity + treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

Amiodarone

151

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus drug cause

Lithium

152

Metal taste + loss of weight = diabetes drug

Metformin

153

Increased weight = diabetes drug

Sulphonylurea = gliclazide

154

Spironolactone + ACE inhibitor = side effect?

Hyperkalaemia

155

Treatment of migraine that causes dystonia

Metoclopramide

156

Gum hypertrophy, nausea, vomitting, tremor and acne

Phenytoin SE

157

Pancreatitis rare side effect of treatment for epilepsy

Valproate

158

Dyspepsia caused by a drug

NSAIDs

159

Fever + jaundice + reddened conjunctivae + renal failure + pulmonary haemorrhage

Weil's disease OR Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae = treat with penicillin

160

Metastatic breast cancer with vomiting and abdominal pain + dry mucous membranes + relatively high calcium

Bone mets = treat with IV fluids + pamidronate

161

Bitten by bat's

Rabies (rhabdovirus - incubation time of 3 months - get fever, malaise, headache and itching at the site of the bite, hyperexcitability to auditory and visual stimulation)

162

Treatment of MS

Acutely = methylprednisolone
Maintenance = interferon beta (reduces number of relapses)