Presidential Elections, The Presidency, and the Bureaucracy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Presidential Elections, The Presidency, and the Bureaucracy Deck (14):


The recent pattern of states holding primaries early in order to maximize their media attention and political influence.


Soft Money

Contributions to political parties for party-building activities. Soft money contributions are used to circumvent limits on hard money.


527 Group

A tax-exempt organization created to influence the political process; 527 groups are not regulated by the Federal Election Commission because they do not coordinate their activities with a candidate or party.



The president's constitutional power to reject a bill passed by Congress. Congress may override the veto with a 2/3 vote in each chamber.


Line-Item Veto

The power to veto specific dollar amounts of line items from major congressional spending bills. The Supreme Court struck down the line-item veto as an unconstitutional expansion of the president's veto power.


Executive Agreement

A pact between the president and a head of a foreign state. Executive agreements do not have to be approved by the Senate. However, unlike treaties, executive agreements are not part of the U.S. law and are not Bing on future presidents.


Executive Privilege

The president's power to refuse to disclose confidential information. In United States v. Nixon(1974), the Supreme Court ruled that there is no constitutional guarantee of unqualified executive privilege.


Lame-Duck Period

The period of time in which the president's term is about to come to an end. Presidents typically have less influence during a lame-duck period.



A large, complex organization of appointed officials.


Executive Order

A directive, order, or regulation issued by the president. Executive orders are based on constitutional or statutory authority and have the force of law.


Iron Triangle

An alliance among an administrative agency, an interest group, and a congressional committee. Each member of the iron triangle provides key services, or policy for the others.


Issue Network

A network that includes policy experts, media pundits, congressional staff members, and interest groups who regularly debate an issue.


Policy Agenda

A set of issues and problems that policy makers consider important. The mass media play an important role in influencing the issues which receive public attention.


Closed Primary

A primary in which voters are required to identify a party preference before the election and are not allowed to split their ticket.