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Flashcards in Pretest Deck (87):

CANNON: CANNON:: STIMULI: (a. stimulation, b. stimuluses, c. stimulate, d. stimulus)

(d) Cannon is the plural form of cannon. Stimuli is the plural form of stimulus. General Information—Class


GRAPES: WINE:: (a. alcohol, b. hops, c. alfalfa, d. kemp): BEER

b) Wine is made from grapes; beer is made from hops. General Information—Description


BLANC: ALPS:: EVEREST: (a. Andes, b. Himalayas, c. Jungfrau, d. Caucasus)

(b) Mont Blanc is the highest mountain peak in the Alps; Mount Everest is the highest mountain peak in the Himalayas. The Alps are a mountain range in Europe. The Andes are a mountain range in South America. The Himalayas are a mountain range in Asia. The Jungfrau is a mountain in the Swiss Alps and the Caucasus is the mountain range that separates the continents of Asia and Europe. General Information—Description


i: e:: (a. −∞, b. π, c. 1, d.): 2.71828

(d) The quantity i is equal to square root of -1; the quantity e is (approximately) equal to 2.71828. The quantity of π is approximately equal to 3.14159. The symbol ∞ represents infinity. Mathematics—Equality/Negation


(a. Na, b. Al, c. O2, d. N): SALT:: H: HYDROCHLORIC ACID

(a) Salt is a compound containing sodium (Na); hydrochloric acid is a compound containing hydrogen (H). O2 stands for oxygen, N stands for nitrogen, and Al stands for aluminum. Natural Science—Part/Whole


A: C:: ALPHA: (a. lambda, b. kappa, c. omicron, d. gamma)

(d) A is the first letter and c is the third letter of the Roman alphabet; alpha is the first letter and gamma is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. Lambda is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet, kappa the 10th letter, and omicron is the 15th letter. Humanities—Class


SKINNER: ENVIRONMENT:: (a. Galton, b. Locke, c. Watson, d. Spence): HEREDITY

(a) Skinner is known for his belief that environment largely shapes behavior; Galton believed that heredity largely shapes behavior. John Locke was an English philosopher and empiricist. John Watson was an American psychologist who established the school of behaviorism. Kenneth Spence was an American psychologist who developed the theory of Stimulus Control. Social Science—Description


IRISH: (a. setter, b. Guernsey, c. mutt, d. St. Bernard):: LABRADOR: RETRIEVER

(a) An Irish setter and a Labrador retriever are both kinds of dogs. General Information—Completion


PERSHING: (a. French, b. U.S., c. English, d. Canadian):: WELLINGTON: ENGLISH

(b) Pershing was a U.S. general who led the American Expeditionary Force in World War I; Wellington was an English general who served in the Napoleonic wars. Humanities—Description


MORNING STAR: EVENING STAR:: VENUS: (a. Mercury, b. Mars, c. Jupiter, d. Venus)

(d) Venus is known both as the morning star and as the evening star. General Information—Similarity/Contrast


HYPERBOLE: HYPERBOLA:: STATEMENT: (a. statements, b. curve, c. exaggeration, d. ellipse)

(b) A hyperbole is a type of statement; a hyperbola is a type of curve. Mathematics—Description


X¯: SAMPLE:: (a. μ, b. σ, c. λ, d. ρ): POPULATION

(a) X¯is a symbol for a sample mean; μ is a symbol for a population mean. σ stands for the standard deviation of a population. λ stands for eigenvalues and Lagrange multipliers. ρ stands for a correlation coefficient in statistics. Note that these Greek letters have additional meanings in other sciences. Mathematics—Description


SHORTEST: (a. February, b. August, c. April, d. December):: LONGEST: JUNE

(d) The shortest day of the year occurs in December. The longest day of the year occurs in June. General Information—Description


(a. nadir, b. zenith, c. summit, d. hilt): BOTTOM:: APEX: TOP

(a) The nadir is the lowest point, or bottom of something; the apex is the highest point, or top. A zenith is the direction pointing directly above a particular location. A summit is the highest point of a mountain. A hilt is the handle of a sword. Vocabulary—Similarity/Contrast


ENORMITY: (a. great wickedness, b. great largess, c. great goodness, d. great passion):: VILIFICATION: SLANDER

(a) Enormity is great wickedness; vilification is slander. Vocabulary—Similarity/Contrast


VANILLA: TEA:: (a. stem, b. root, c. flower, d. bean): LEAF

(d) Vanilla is from a bean, tea from a leaf. General Information—Description


NOON: EVE:: 12:21: (a. 8:34, b. 10:01, c. 7:54, d. 11:29)

(b) Noon and eve are both palindromes (they read the same spelled backward and forward), as are 12:21 and 10:01. Nonsemantic


(a. soap, b. aspirin, c. base, d. litmus): ACID:: LYE: ALKALINE

(b) Aspirin is acid; lye is alkaline. General Information—Description


SAM: AIR:: ABM: (a. sea, b. land, c. ballistic, d. missile)

(c) The second letter in the acronym SAM (surface-to-air missile) stands for air; the second letter in the ABM (anti-ballistic missile) stands for ballistic. General Information—Part/Whole


OCHER: (a. yellow, b. green, c. blue, d. gray):: LAVENDER: PURPLE

(a) Ocher is a shade of yellow; lavender is a shade of purple. Vocabulary—Description


MARE: EWE:: HORSE: (a. goat, b. sheep, c. pig, d. deer)

(b) A mare is a female horse; a ewe is a female sheep. Vocabulary—Description


RAVIOLI: (a. spaghetti, b. linguine, c. cannelloni, d. enchilada):: MANICOTTI: TORTELLINI

(c) Ravioli, cannelloni, manicotti, and tortellini are all stuffed pasta dishes. General Information—Class


(a. bacteria, b. viruses, c. fungi, d. rickettsiae) TYPHUS:: MYCOBACTERIA: TUBERCULOSIS

(d) Typhus is caused by rickettsiae (parasitic bacteria), tuberculosis by mycobacteria. Natural Science—Description


TWO: IMPEACH:: (a. zero, b. one, c. three, d. four): CONVICT

(a) Two presidents of the United States have been impeached (Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton); no president has been convicted. Humanities—Description


0 PROOF: 0%:: 50 PROOF: (a. 10%, b. 25%, c. 75%, d. 100%)

(b) Something that is 0 proof has a 0% concentration of alcohol; something that is 50 proof has a 25% concentration of alcohol. General Information—Description


INDUCE: INDUCT:: (a. adduce, b. reason, c. persuade, d. deduct): INSTALL

(c) To induce is to persuade; to induct is to install. To adduce means to cite or to allege in order to support an argument; to deduct is to take away, as from an amount; to reason means to think logically. Vocabulary—Similarity/Contrast


PICASSO: (a. Bosch, b. Daumier, c. Tintoretto, d. Dali):: GUERNICA: GARDEN OF EARTHLY DELIGHT

S (a) Picasso painted Guernica. Bosch painted The Garden of Earthly Delights. Daumier is famous for his works depicting the life of Don Quixote; Tintoretto is known for his painting of the last supper (and da Vinci created a painting with the same title!); Dali is famous for his bizarre, surreal images, often of soft watches like in The Persistence of Memory. Humanities—Description


UNICORN: (a. mythical beast, b. duet, c. zebra, d. union):: SINGLETON: BICYCLE

(b) A unicorn and a singleton both refer to one of something; a duet and a bicycle both refer to two of something. General Information—Equality/Negation


(a. Holland, b. Croatia, c. Denmark, d. Switzerland): ALPINE:: GREECE: MEDITERRANEAN

(d) Switzerland is an Alpine country; Greece is a Mediterranean country. Croatia is an eastern European country. Denmark is located in northern Europe and Holland is located in western Europe. General Information—Description


M.D.: EARNED:: (a. D.D., b. Ph.D., c. D.D.S., d. O.D.): HONORARY

(a) An M.D. (Doctor of Medicine) degree is earned; a D.D. (Doctor of Divinity) degree is honorary. A Ph.D. is a Doctor of Philosophy, a D.D.S. is a Doctor of Dental Surgery, and an O.D. is a Doctor of Optometry. General Information—Description


CLUB: (a. diamond, b. heart, c. spade, d. ace):: LOWEST: HIGHEST

(c) In bridge, the club represents the lowest suit and the spade represents the highest suit. General Information—Description


GOSLING: GOOSE:: SHOAT: (a. goat, b. sheep, c. horse, d. hog)

(d) A gosling is a young goose; a shoat is a young hog. Vocabulary—Description


C: LEMON:: A: (a. liver, b. lettuce, c. orange, d. cake)

(a) A lemon is a very good source of vitamin C; liver is a very good source of vitamin A. General Information—Description


PACIFIC: OCEAN:: (a. Mercury, b. Jupiter, c. Uranus, d. Neptune): PLANET

(b) The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the oceans; Jupiter is the largest of the planets. General Information—Description


ELECT: SELECT:: TIE: (a. lose, b. win, c. sty, d. rope)

(c) Elect is pronounced like select, minus the initial s consonant sound; tie is pronounced like sty, minus the initial s consonant sound. Nonsemantic


MALLET: (a. hunting, b. rugby, c. cricket, d. croquet):: BAT: BASEBALL

(d) Croquet is played with a mallet, baseball with a bat. General Information—Description


BAROMETER: AIR PRESSURE:: TACHOMETER: (a. speed of descent, b. speed of rotation, c. acceleration, d. inertia)

(b) A barometer measures air pressure; a tachometer measures speed of rotation. General Information—Description


EMERALD: GRUE:: (a. ruby, b. sapphire, c. amethyst, d. diamond): BLEEN

(b) In Nelson Goodman’s famous paradox, an emerald can now be construed as grue (green until the year 2000 and blue thereafter), whereas a sapphire can be construed as bleen (blue until the year 2000 and green thereafter). Humanities—Description


MARTIN: DAVID:: (a. Dombey, b. Micawber, c. Magoun, d. Chuzzlewit): COPPERFIELD

(d) Martin Chuzzlewit and David Copperfield are both titles of novels by Charles Dickens. Dombey and Son is a novel by Charles Dickens; Wilkins Micawber is a character in David Copperfield, and Francis Magoun was a writer and professor at Harvard. Humanities—Completion


(a. 2:00, b. 3:00, c. 5:00, d. 6:00): SEATTLE:: 4:00: CHICAGO

(a) When it is 2:00 in Seattle, it is 4:00 in Chicago. General Information—Description


VENUS: (a. Uranus, b. Mars, c. Saturn, d. Pluto):: LOVE: THE DEAD

(d) In Roman mythology, Venus was the goddess of love; Pluto was alleged to be the god of the dead. Saturn was the god of agriculture and harvest, Uranus was the god of the sky, and Mars was the god of war. Humanities—Description


SUBORN: (a. give birth to, b. prove, c. bribe, d. demand):: SUBORDINATE: INFERIOR

(c) Suborn and bribe are synonyms, as are subordinate and inferior. Vocabulary—Similarity/Contrast


A: O:: (a. E, b. OA, c. B, d. RH): AB

(c) A, O, B, and AB are all blood types. Natural Science—Class


(a. coal, b. petroleum, c. black opal, d. uranium): BLACK GOLD:: PYRITE: FOOL’S GOLD

(b) Petroleum is black gold; pyrite fool’s gold. General Information—Similarity/Contrast



Malachite is green in color; lapis lazuli is blue. General Information—Description


LONGITUDE: LATITUDE:: (a. 110°, b. 90°, c. 70°, d. 50°): 20°

(a) Lines of longitude and latitude are at right (90°) angles to each other, as are lines at 110° and 20°. Mathematics—Description


(a. biology, b. chemistry, c. physics, d. astronomy): HERSCHEL:: SURGERY: LISTER

(d) Herschel is famous in the field of astronomy; Lister is famous in the field of surgery. Natural Science—Description


METER: KILOMETER:: LOG 10: (a. e, b. 10, c. 10 to the power of 3, d.)

C) A kilometer is 1000 meters; 10 to the power of 3 is 1000 times log 10. Mathematics—Equality/Negation


(a. Ash Wednesday, b. St. Bartholomew’s Day, c. Maundy Thursday, d. All Saints’ Day): EASTER:: FIRST: LAST

(a) Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent; Easter is the last day. General Information—Description


GHOST: SPIRIT:: GHOUL: (a. body, b. vampire, c. nightmare, d. grave robber

) (d) A ghost is a spirit; a ghoul is a grave robber. Vocabulary—Similarity/Contrast


GERUND: (a. adverb, b. pronoun, c. conjunction, d. noun):: PARTICIPLE: ADJECTIVE

(d) A gerund is a verb form that can act like a noun; a participle is a verb form that can act like an adjective. General Information—Description


(a. Abelard, b. Aquinas, c. Erasmus, d. Eusebius): HELOÏSE:: TRISTAN: ISOLDE

(a) Abelard and Heloïse were lovers, as were Tristan and Isolde. Abelard was a medieval philosopher and theologian. Tristan and Isolde are characters in a legend. Desiderius Erasmus was a Dutch Renaissance humanist and Catholic theologian. Eusebius Caesarea was the bishop of Caesarea Palestine and through his work provided a basis for Church History. Saint Thomas Aquinas was an Italian Catholic priest and proponent of natural theology. Humanities—Class


GOBI: (a. Africa, b. Asia, c. South America, d. Central America):: SAHARA: AFRICA

(b) The Gobi Desert is in Asia; the Sahara Desert in Africa. General Information—Description


X: X2:: STANDARD DEVIATION: (a. mode, b. median, c. variance, d. chi square)

(c) A variance is a standard deviation squared. Mathematics—Description


LEONINE: (a. vulpine, b. porcine, c. supine, d. bovine):: LION: FOX

(a) Leonine means “like a lion”; vulpine means “like a fox.” Porcine means “like a pig,” supine means “lying on the back,” and bovine means “like a cow.” Vocabulary—Description


AUGUST 8: LEO:: (a. January 8, b. April 8, c. October 8, d. December 8): SAGITTARIUS

(d) Someone born on August 8 is born under the sign of Leo; someone born on December 8 is born under the sign of Sagittarius. Aries (March 21–April 20); Taurus (April 21–May 21); Gemini (May 22–June 21); Cancer (June 22–July 22); Leo (July 23–August 21); Virgo (August 22–September 23); Libra (September 24–October 23); Scorpio (October 24–November 22); Sagittarius (November 23–December 22); Capricorn (December 23–January 20); Aquarius (January 21–February 19); Pisces (February 20–March 20). General Information—Description


CHESS: CHESSMEN:: GO: (a. cards, b. stones, c. pegs, d. balls)

(b) The game of chess is played with chessmen; the game of go is played with stones. General Information—Description


CIPHER: NAUGHT:: (a. zero, b. all, c. most, d. one): NONE

(a) Cipher, naught, zero, and none all refer to nullity. Vocabulary—Class


SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST: (a. Friday, b. Saturday, c. Sunday, d. Monday): MUSLIM:: FRIDAY

(b) Sabbath occurs on Saturday for a Seventh-Day Adventist and on Friday for a Muslim. General Information—Description


(a. 10, b. 11, c. 12, d. 13): DUODECIMAL:: 13: DECIMAL

(b) The number 11 in duodecimal (base 12) notation equals the number 13 in decimal (base 10) notation. Mathematics—Equality/Negation


(a. shawl, b. belt, c. cloak, d. sash): BURNOOSE:: CAP: BUSBY

(c) A burnoose is a type of cloak; a busby is a type of cap. General Information—Description


LEGHORN: (a. cattle, b. goat, c. sheep, d. fowl):: ANGORA: GOAT

(d) A leghorn is a type of fowl; an angora is a type of goat. General Information—Description


LISZT: HUNGARY:: MENOTTI: (a. U.S.A., b. Greece, c. Spain, d. England)

(a) Liszt was a noted composer from Hungary; Menotti is a noted composer from the United States. Humanities—Description


CONGRESS: U.S.A.:: DIET: (a. Germany, b. Turkey, c. Japan, d. China)

(c) The main legislative body of the United States is the Congress; the main legislative body of Japan is the Diet. General Information—Description


INDUCTION: DEDUCTION:: HUME: (a. Locke, b. Leibniz, c. Berkeley, d. Mill)

(b) Hume, an empiricist, used induction as his major mode of reasoning. Leibniz, a rationalist, used deduction as his major mode of reasoning. Humanities—Description


STOP: (a. h, b. j, c. t, d. v):: FRICATIVE: F

(c) The sound of t is a stop; the source of f is a fricative. A fricative is a sound that is produced by forcing air through a narrow passage. A stop is a consonant produced by stopping the flow of air at some point. Social Science—Description


(a. 1 /2 gt2, b. ra, c. 1 /4 g2 k, d. pc): D:: MA: F

(a) Distance fallen by an object equals one-half the force of gravity times the amount of time squared; force equals mass times acceleration. Natural Science—Equality/Negation


FIDELIO: BORIS GODUNOV:: BEETHOVEN: (a. Rimski-Korsakov, b. Shostakovich, c. Prokofiev, d. Mussorgsky)

(d) Fidelio is an opera by Beethoven; Boris Godunov is an opera by Mussorgsky. Humanities—Description


MISER: AVARICIOUS:: SYCOPHANT: (a. plutonic, b. veracious, c. unctuous, d. sybaritic)

(c) A miser is avaricious; a sycophant is unctuous. Vocabulary—Description


(a. genitive, b. dative, c. ablative, d. vocative): ACCUSATIVE:: INDIRECT: DIRECT

(b) In Latin, the dative case is used for indirect objects; the accusative case is used for direct objects. Humanities—Description


(a. wheat, b. barley, c. oats, d. rice): SAKE:: JUNIPER BERRIES: GIN

(d) Just as the beverage gin is made from juniper berries, so is the beverage sake made from rice. General Information—Part/Whole


A RAISIN IN THE SUN: THE GRAPES OF WRATH:: (a. Morrison, b. Hansberry, c. Miller, d. Hare): STEINBECK

(b) Lorraine Hansberry wrote A Raisin in the Sun and John Steinbeck wrote The Grapes of Wrath. Humanities—Description


SHARP: TACK:: COOL: (a. cucumber, b. stone, c. stream, d. milk)

(a) The phrases “sharp as a tack” and “cool as a cucumber” can both be used to describe people. General Information—Completion


CRETE: (a. Turkey, b. Syria, c. Greece, d. Albania):: SICILY: ITALY

(c) Crete is a large island that is part of Greece and Sicily is a large island that is part of Italy. General Information—Description


a2 + b2: (a. hypotenuse squared, b. rectangular area, c. circumference cubed, d. spherical volume):: (y –y1)/ (x –x1): SLOPE

(a) The expression a2 + b2 is equal to hypotenuse squared just as (y –y1)/(x –x1) is equal to slope. Mathematics—Equality/Negation


(a. tomato, b. peanut, c. chestnut, d. ginger): PARSNIP:: TURNIP: POTATO

(d) Ginger, parsnips, turnips, and potatoes are all edible root vegetables. General Information—Class


KEEL: FRAMES:: BREASTBONE: (a. human, b. ribs, c. pectorals, d. backbone)

(b) The keel is the structural centerline of a ship, to which the frames are attached. The breastbone is a structural midline of the body, to which the ribs are attached. General Information—Part/Whole


PUSILLANIMOUS: (a. brave, b. hungry, c. joyful, d. jealous): PERFIDIOUS: LOYAL

(a) Pusillanimous means the opposite of brave, just as perfidious is the opposite of loyal. Vocabulary—Similarity/Contrast


MARS: VENUS:: EARTH: (a. Jupiter, b. Saturn, c. Mercury, d. Neptune)

(c) Mars, Venus, Earth, and Mercury are all terrestrial or “rocky” planets. Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune are gas planets. Natural Science—Class


CAT: MOUSE:: (a. squirrel, b. bandicoot, c. lemur, d. mongoose): SNAKE

(d) Cats are frequently kept to ward off mice just as mongooses are kept to ward off snakes. General Information—Description


ELEPHANT: (a. piano, b. tusk, c. table, d. hoof):: WHALE: LAMP

(a) The elephant was once poached so that its ivory could be used for keys on pianos. The whale was once poached so that its oil could be used to burn in lamps. General Information—Description


(a. Padua, b. Siberia, c. Verona, d. Narnia): OZ:: SHANGRI-LA: ATLANTIS

(d) Narnia, Oz, Shangri-La, and Atlantis are all fictitious places of literature. Padua and Verona are cities in Italy. Siberia is a part of Northern Asia located in Russia. Humanities—Class


AURORA BOREALIS: (a. Northern Lights, b. Gulf Stream, c. Black Forest, d. El Niño):: CRANIUM: SKULL

(a) Aurora Borealis is the term of Latin origin used for the Northern Lights. Cranium is the term of Latin origin used for the skull. Natural Science—Similarity/Contrast


PUMMELO: CITRUS FRUIT:: (a. rutabaga, b. grain, c. lentil, d. artichoke): LEGUME

(c) A pummelo is a citrus fruit just as a lentil is a legume. General Information—Class


KENNEDY: (a. House Representative, b. Senator, c. Mayor, d. Governor) :: CLINTON: GOVERNOR

(b) Before becoming president, Kennedy and Clinton were a senator and a governor, respectively. General Information—Description


ARGES: CYCLOPS:: MEDUSA: (a. gorgon, b. minotaur, c. siren, d. hydra)

(a) Arges was a cyclops just as Medusa was a gorgon. The Minotaur is a mythical creature with the head of a bull and the body of a man. A siren is a mythical sea nymph that lures sailors to their demise. Hydra is a mythical monster with nine heads; when one head is struck off it is replaced by two new ones. Humanities—Class


(a. weary, b. tenacious, c. harmonious, d. sprightly): JOCUND:: VERITABLE: AUTHENTIC

(d) Jocund means sprightly just as veritable means authentic. Vocabulary—Similarity/Contrast