Prevention and Treatment of Field Related Injuries Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Prevention and Treatment of Field Related Injuries Deck (40):

insects located in the Quantico area that can cause disease or illness are

 Ticks.
 Chiggers.
 Bees.


two diseases that can be spread by means of a tick bite are

Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease


Symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever include

 Nausea.
 Vomiting.
 Headache.
 Weakness.
 Paralysis.
 In extreme cases, cardio-respiratory collapse


Signs will begin to show about ten days after being bitten by an infected tick and can include:

 A progressive red rash develops and may spread to several parts of the body. It may resemble a “bulls-eye”, with rings of discoloration.
 Painful swelling of the joints, particularly the knees.


To prevent chances of a tick bite use

 Use insect repellent on target areas such as under the arms or the area near the top of the boot.
 Make sure sleeves are rolled down and boots are bloused.


If a person is bitten by a tick they should

 Carefully and slowly remove the tick physically. Use fine tweezers to grasp the tick by the body and pull it slowly, and steadily, straight out of the skin.
 Do not try to suffocate the tick with gasoline or Vaseline or to burn it with a lighted match as you can possibly injure yourself.
 Avoid handling the tick with your hands
 Once the tick is removed, use disinfectant on the area.


Symptoms of chigger bites include

 Small welts on the skin.
 Intense itching.


To prevent chigger bites use

 Use insect repellent on target areas, especially the lower legs.
 Keep sleeves rolled down and boots bloused


If someone has been stung by a bee you should

 If the stinger remains embedded, scrape it off without injecting additional venom.
 Wash the sting site with soap and water; use ice to reduce pain.
 If extremities are bitten, remove rings or watches to allow for swelling.
 Any serious reactions indicate a possible allergic reaction; individuals so affected should seek medical attention.


If someone is bitten by a human or animal you should

 Wash the wound with water and soap.
 Cover the wound with a sterile, dry dressing or bandage.
 Immobilize the area with a splint or bandage if necessary.
 Get the casualty to a medical facility as soon as possible.


Symptoms of a black widow spider bite are:

 No apparent mark.
 Neurotoxin poison resulting in muscle cramps (especially the abdomen).
 Tightness in the chest or difficulty breathing.
 Nausea.
 Vomiting.
 Sweating.


If someone is bitten by a black widow spider you should

 Render basic life support for the victim if in respiratory distress. Much more commonly, the victim will require relief from pain.
 If the site of the bite can be identified, putting a cold compress against it may slow the absorption of toxin.
 Transport the victim to a medical facility as soon as possible. If possible, bring the spider to the facility with you.


Symptoms of a brown recluse spider bite are:

 Red, swollen bite site.
 Blister forming on the bite site.
 Fever.
 After a few days, a scab forms on the bite site and later leaves an ulcer or possibly gangrene


To treat a brown recluse spider bite you should

 Render basic life support for the victim if in respiratory distress. Much more commonly, the victim will require relief from pain.
 If the site of the bite can be identified, putting a cold compress against it may slow the absorption of toxin.
 Transport the victim to a medical facility as soon as possible. If possible, bring the spider to the facility with you


For a scorpion sting, follow the same procedures you use to

treat spider bites


The two families of poisonous snakes in the United States are

the crotalidae and the elapidae


The Crotalidae snake family includes

 Rattlesnakes.
 Pygmy rattlers.
 Copperheads.
 Water moccasins.
 Cottonmouths.


The family of the Elapidae snakes has only one representative

the coral snake


When Identifying the Snake check for these points

Arrangement of teeth
Sensory pits
Color and pattern of coloration
The shape of the head, as well as the subcaudal plates, will generally characterize harmless snakes from poisonous.
The shape of the eyes also tells a harmless snake from a poisonous snake.


Hemotoxic Snakebite Symptoms are

 Excruciating pain at the site of the bite.
 Severe headache and thirst caused by internal bleeding.
 Puncture marks.
 Shock.
 Respiratory distress


Neurotoxic Snakebite Symptoms are

 Irregular heartbeat, followed by generalized weakness and exhaustion, terminating in shock.
 Severe headache, dizziness, blurred vision or blindness, hearing difficulty, mental disturbances such as incoherent speech, stupor, and mental confusion.
 Lack of muscular coordination (e.g., the inability to reach out and pick up an object), muscle spasms, and twitching.
 Difficult or labored breathing.
 Numbness and tingling of the skin (particularly of the lips and the soles of the feet).
 Excessive perspiration.
 Chills and fever.
 Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea


Emergency Treatment for Hemotoxic or Neurotoxic Snakebites is

 Calm and reassure the patient. Get the patient to lie down and keep quiet to decrease the spread of any venom through the system.
 Locate the bite area; clean it gently with soap and water or a mild antiseptic.
 Wrap soft rubber tubes or bands two to four inches above and below the fang marks; tighten them just enough to occlude the venous circulation, not the arterial circulation.
 Remove constrictive clothing and jewelry to allow for swelling. Loosen the constricting bands as necessary to allow for swelling.
 Do not wrap the limb in ice or put ice directly on the skin. Cool the bite area, but do not freeze it.
 Immobilize the extremity with a splint


The following poisonous snakes are found within the Quantico training area

 Copperhead: Most commonly found, typically three to five feet long.
 Timber rattlesnake: Infrequently seen, three to five feet long.
 Water moccasin: Found in southern Virginia, infrequently spotted around Quantico


The six types of heat injuries are

Prickly heat rash
Fungus infections
Heat cramps
Heat exhaustion
Heat stroke.


Heat cramps symptoms are

 Muscle cramps, particularly in the legs and abdomen.
 Profuse sweating and faintness


To treat heat cramps you

 Give the victim small sips of cool water.
 Remove the victim to a cool or shaded area.
 Massage cramped muscles.
 If indications of a more serious condition are present, transport the victim to medical attention


Heat exhaustion symptoms are:

 Rapid, shallow breathing.
 Dizziness.
 Blurred vision.
 Pale, clammy skin.
 Profuse sweating, normally accompanies this condition.


To treat heat exhaustion

 Remove excessive clothing.
 Place the victim in a cool, shaded area.
 Fan or sprinkle victim with water to keep cool.
 If conscious, give victim small sips of water.
 Treat victim also for shock,.
 Seek medical attention should indications of a more serious problem exist.


Symptoms of heat stroke are:

 Shortness of breath.
 Weakness.
 Headache.
 Dizziness.
 Loss of appetite.
 Nausea.
 Muscle-twitching leading to convulsions.
 Dilated pupils.
 Lack of sweating.
 Full, fast pulse; delirium and eventual loss of consciousness


To treat heat stroke

 Send for medical assistance.
 Move the victim to a cool, shaded area.
 Loosen victim’s clothing and equipment.
 Apply water or ice to the victim’s entire body, fanning the victim as much as possible.
 Do not attempt to force the victim to drink.
 Ensure that the airway remains open and that the victim continues to breathe


The four environmental factors that make up the WBGT index are:

 Air movement.
 Air temperature.
 Relative humidity.
 Radiant heat


If the environment is cooler than the body, heat leaves the body by seven means:

The loss of heat into still air
Conduction: The loss of heat due to contact with an object that is colder than the body
Convection: The body continually warms (by radiation) a thin layer of air next to the skin to a temperature nearly equal to that of the skin
Evaporation: The evaporation of sweat from the skin accounts for a substantial heat loss
Respiration: Inhaling cool air and exhaling warm air contribute to heat loss
Wind chill:
Water chill: The thermal conductivity of water is 32 times as great as that of still air.


Frostbite symptoms are

 Sensations of cold or pain.
 Complete loss of sensation in the affected area. The sensation is described as feeling “like a stump,” “like a block of wood," or "cube-like."
 Tissue becomes hard and red, and then turns white, white-yellow or mottled blue-white, and cold.
 Swelling may occur, and blisters may form on the affected area.


To treat frostbite,

 Move the casualty to a heated area such as a warming tent or vehicle.
 Remove or loosen constrictive clothing to allow the blood to circulate freely to the affected area.
 For deep frostbite, which has penetrated below the upper layers of skin and into the muscles, transport the victim immediately to a medical facility. Do not attempt to thaw the affected area.
 Do not rub snow on a frostbitten area nor immerse it in boiling water


Symptoms of immersion foot are

 Pale, wrinkled, loose, spongy, cold, swollen, and waxy skin on the feet.
 Discoloration develops as the transition to gangrene occurs.


To treat and prevent trench foot,

 Keep the feet dry.
 Change socks often and air-dry or blot the moisture off.
 Keep the feet warm.
 Change socks often and use foot powder to absorb excess moisture.
 Only wear vapor barrier boots when necessary, and once afflicted, walk only as much as necessary


Symptoms of hypothermia by core body temperature are

 Temp 99° to 96° F: Shivering becomes intense and uncontrollable. The ability to perform complex tasks is impaired.
 Temp 95° F to 91° F: Violent shivering persists. Victims have difficulty speaking and are sluggish in their thinking. Furthermore, victims may be stubborn, hallucinating, and extremely fatigued. Apathy may begin to set in.
 Temp 90° to 86° F: Shivering decreases and is replaced by strong muscular rigidity. Exposed skin may become blue or puffy.
 Temp 85° to 81° F: Victims become irrational, lose contact with reality, and drift into a stupor. Pulse and respiration are slowed.
 Temp 80° to 78° F: Victims lose consciousness; reflexes cease to function. The heartbeat becomes erratic.
 Temp < 78° F: Failure of the cardiac and respiratory control centers in the brain. Death.


To treat hypothermia

Evacuate the individual to a medical facility as soon as possible.
Remove all wet clothing and replace with dry items.
As with frostbite, gradually warm the body
Continuously monitor the victim's respiration and heartbeat; administer CPR, if required, to maintain circulation.
Warm liquids in small sips may be given if the victim is conscious.


Use the acronym COLD when preparing for cold-weather operations or treating cold-weather injuries:

C: Keep it Clean
O: Avoid Overheating
L: Wear clothing Loosely and in Layers
D: Keep it Dry.


Cold Weather Injury Prevention is

Closely observe personnel who have previously become cold casualties.

Diet is important

Water is also important

Alcoholic beverages should be avoided

The importance of individual skills should not be underestimated.

Preventing Marines from overdressing or standing around in the cold doing nothing while dressed lightly for movements are just two considerations.