Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cervical Cancers Flashcards Preview

Life Cycles: Unit 1 > Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cervical Cancers > Flashcards

Flashcards in Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cervical Cancers Deck (18)
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Major types of cervical epithelial cells 

  • Ectocervix → Stratified, non keratinizing, squamous epithelium; abundant cytoplasm, dark pyknotic nucleus    
  • Endocervix → Columnar, mucous secreting, epithelium; may appear in a “honeycomb” array, with distinct cell membranes due to cytoplasmic mucin.


cells present?

  • top of image = mature squamous cells (ectocervix)
  • lower left corner = columnar glandular cells (endocervix)


HPV virus types/risks

  • Warts: 6, 11 (low risk)
  • Dysplasia:16, 18, others (high risk)
  • Carcinoma: 16, 18, others (high risk)


Squamous changes in cervical dysplasia

  • Spectrum of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) from left to right:
  • Normal squamous epithelium for comparison;
  • CIN I with koilocytotic atypia;
  • CIN II with progressive atypia in all layers of the epithelium;
  • CIN III (carcinoma in situ) with diffuse atypia and loss of maturation.


Benign cytology pap smear results and histologic appearance

  • Normal ==> Normal histology
  • ASC = Atypical squamous cells. ASC and more = Colposcopy ==> No direct translation on histo
  • ASC-H = Atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL ==> No direct translation on histo


Characteristics of LSIL on cytology pap smear results and histologic appearance

  • LSIL → Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion
    • 50% will be normal
    • 40% will be CIN I
    • 10% will be CIN II - III
  • Usual histo appeareance: CIN I (1.4m)


Characteristics of HSIL on cytology pap smear results and histologic appearance

  • HSIL → High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion
    • 30% will be normal
    • 30% will be CIN I
    • 30% will be CIN II - III
  • Usual histo = CIN II* - III* (330k)


Most common histologic types of invasive cervical carcinoma

  • Squamous cell carcinoma - precursor CIN if HPV related
  • Cervical adenocarcinoma - precursor is adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)


Gardisil: antigenic components and viral types covered

  • Antigens
    • Quadrivalent L1 virus-like particle (VLP) - yeast
  • Viral types
    • HPV 6 / 11 / 16 / 18


Cervarix: antigenic components and viral types covered

  • Bivalent virus like particle - yeast
  • 16, 18


Gardisil: efficacy

  • Prophylactic efficacy of 98.8% in the reduction of genital warts, CIN 2, CIN 3 and adenocarcinoma in situ if woman is naive
  • previously exposed => overall reduction of 44 % in disease related to other HPV types
  • Males: Studies have demonstrated 90% efficacy in the prevention of external genital warts in males aged 16 – 23


Cervarix: efficacy

  • Seroconversion to the HPV types included in the vaccine is 100% and protection against CIN 2 and 3 and adenocarcinoma caused by HPV types 16 and 18 is 93%.   
  • Somehow gives better protection for another strain of HPV (31, 45) that causes cancer


Provider impact on HPV vaccine administration

  • Most likely to recommend when providers have a positive attitude about the behavior, when they feel their opinion is supported by trusted colleagues and professional organizations, and when they feel they have control over its implementation.   
  • Recommendation ↑ with age of patient, due to informed consent.  Unfortunately, this ↓ efficacy if they become sexually active


Parental impact on HPV vaccine administration

  • Mostly receptive
  • Biggest concern - “How will this affect my child’s sexual behavior?”
  • Regression - down to the rest of the population
  • Disinhibition - or even worse way too much sex.
  • Parents from highly eclectic, subgroups reported being less likely to vaccinate


Young adults impact on HPV vaccine administration

  • Studies in this population find that HPV vaccination is generally well accepted.
  • One survey provided 340 college students with information about HPV found that
  • 75% of women and 33% of men would agree to a vaccination covering HPV 16 & 18.
  • Acceptance rates ↑ to 90% and 75% when coverage was broadened to include HPV 6 and 11.
  • The intention to receive the vaccine was greater among participants scoring higher on an HPV knowledge test and with more than five lifetime sexual partners.


Issues involving vaccination (to HPV) in HIV positive 

  • potential differences between vaccination strategies targeted at infants born with HIV and those who acquire it later in life. 
  • The point in their HIV infection at which they are vaccinated
  • Preexisting exposure to HPV
  • Viral loads
  • CD 4 counts
  • The potential role of highly active antiretroviral therapy


Trends in cervical cancer screening recommendations

  • Less screening
  • Start later
  • Screen less often
  • Eliminate certain groups entirely (pts who have undergone  hysterectomy, >65y.o)
  • Add co-testing (cytology plus HPV)


2009 recommendations for cervical cancer screening

  • Cervical cancer screening should begin at age 21 years.  
    • Exception: HIV+
  • screening every 2 years for women between the ages of 21 and 29 years.
  • Women may extend the interval to every 3 years if the following are true:
    • They are ≥ 30 years of age
    • They have had three consecutive negative cervical cytology screening test results
    • They have no history of CIN 2/CIN 3
    • They are not HIV infected
    • They are not immunocompromised
    • They were not exposed to DES in utero.