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Flashcards in Primate Behaviour Deck (26)
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1

Analogy

Similar traits due similar functions

2

Homology

Similar traits due common ancestry

3

Homoplasy

Similar traits due convergence

4

Referential model

Use of species to draw analogies with others

5

Ecological determinism

Environment determines behaviour`

6

Speciation

The appearance of new species

7

Evolution

A change in the inherited charasteristics of populations over generations

8

Morphology

The form of living organisms

9

Specimen

Individual organism that functions as example of its species

10

Natural selection

Process that leads to adaptations when three postulates hold: competition, variation, heritability

11

Biological Species Concept

groups of naturally interbreeding populations which are reproductively isolated from others

12

Phylogenetic Species Concept

Species as distinct cluster of organisms by looking at unique evolutionary history

13

Principle of Parsimony

Simplest solution as most likely

14

Synapomorphies

A characteristic present in an ancestral species and shared exclusively by its evolutionary descendants.

15

Adaptive radiation

An evolutionary process that produces new species from a single, rapidly diversifying lineage

16

Crypsis

Predator avoidance

17

family: Cebidae

Haplorhini-->Platyrrhini-->Ceboidea-->Cebidae
Capuchins, Squirrel monkeys.
- arboreal
- diurnal
- omnivorous
- group living

18

family: Pitheciidae

Haplorhini-->Platyrrhini-->Ceboidea-->Pitheciidae
Sakis, Uakaris, Titi Monkey
- arboreal
- diurnal
- diverse diet
- diverse social organization
- special adapted teeth for protected foods

19

family: Callitrichidae

Haplorhini-->Platyrrhini-->Ceboidea-->Callitrichidae
Tamarins
- smallest haplorhines
- fruit, insect, gum
- pseudo claw instead of nails
- monogamous & polyandrous
- produce twins
- territorial: scent-marking

20

family: Atelidae

Haplorhini-->Platyrrhini-->Ceboidea-->Atelidae
Spider monkeys
- arboreal
- diurnal
- prehensive tails
- reduced thumb
- diverse diet
- suspensory locomotion

21

family: Aotidae

Haplorhini-->Platyrrhini-->Ceboidea-->Aotidae
Aotus (single genus)
- arboreal
- nocturnal
- monochromatic vision
- monogamous
- territorial: scent marking

22

Suborder: Strepsirrhini

Primates-->Strepsirrhini
Africa, Madagascar, India, Southeast Asia
- more ancestral traits
- wet nose
- smaller body
- more reliance on olfactory cues
- scent marking
- post orbital bar
- tooth comb
- grooming claw
- vertical clinging and leaping
- tapetum lucidum

23

Suborder: Haplorhini

Primates-->Haplorhini
- more derived traits
- dry nose
- flatter face
- reduced hearing
- diurnal
- no tapetum lucidum
- no tooth comb
- larger, more complex brains:
* longer juvenile dependency
* increased parental investment
* increased social complexity

24

Infraorder: Platyrrhini

haplorhini-->Platyrrhini
New world monkeys
- broad, outward facing nostrils
- three premolars
- arboreal
- diurnal (except Aotus)
- smaller body
- little sexual dimorphism

25

Infraorder: Catarrhini

Haplorhini-->Catarrhini
Old world monkey
- narrow, downward facing nostrils
- terrestrial,arboreal
- all diurnal
- larger body size
- diverse social organization
- diverse diet, habitat
- some extreme sexual dimorphism

26

altricial

offspring requiring a lot of parental investment