Primer 5 Flashcards Preview

DIT Primers 1-11 (MS ODD; LS EVEN) > Primer 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Primer 5 Deck (24):
1

Cytokine primarily responsible for activation of MQs?

IFN-Y

2

Cardinal features of parkinson's disease?

T-Tremor (pill rolling)
R- Rigidity (cogwheel)
A- Akinesia/Bradykinesia
P- Postural disturbance
+ Mask face
+ Festinating gait

3

Three NTs primarily affected in Huntington's disease?

^ Dopamine
DECREASE GABA
DECREASE Ach

4

Describe the pathogenesis of acute angle closure glaucoma:

Lens pushes against iris (pupil)--> narrow angle between sclera + iris--> INHIBITS outflow of AH (posterior-->ant.)

5

How does acute angle closure present: symptoms? (3)

1. Acute onset pain
2. N/ HA
3. Colored halos and rainbows when looking at light

6

Describe what the acute angle glaucoma eye looks/feels like (3):

Red, teary
Fixed mid-dilated pupil (not reactive to light)
Firm to palpation

7

Surgical treatment for Acute and Open angle glaucoma:

Acute: Laser Iridotomy
Open: Laser Trabeculoplasty

8

Describe the early and late stage findings in open angle glaucoma:

Early: asymptomatic ^IOP

Late: ^ IOP--> damage to CN II --> LOST PERIPHERAL VISION (permanent blindness w.o tx.)

9

Describe the pathogenesis of open angle glaucoma + important risk factors (3):

Occluded trabecular meshwork--> ^ IOP w/ normal sclera/iris angle

RISKS: +40yo, AA, Fam Hx (glaucoma, myopia, DM)

10

Drugs to treat Glaucoma (inflow vs. outflow):
2 first line = **

DECREASE Inflow:
1. B blockers**
2. CA inhibitors

INCREASE Outflow:
1. PGs**
2. a-Antagonists
3. Cholinergic antagonists

11

Prominent fundoycopic exam findings asstd. with glaucoma?

^ cup/ disc ratio

12

How does a cataract present?

Usually bilateral/ asymmetric painless loss visual acuity
-Difficulty driving at night (glare) and reading roadsigns/ fine print
-Nearsightedness= early phenomenon

Possible *second sight phenomenon*

13

Describe 4 risk factors for cataracts:

1. ^ Age
2. Long term glucocorticoid use
3. Tobacco + ETOH
4. DM **Annual screenings for DM pts.***

14

Treatment of dry and wet macular degeneration?
Fundoscopic exam findings?
Clinical findings?

Both: Smoking cessation
Dry: Daily antioxidant supplements (Vit. A, C, Lutein, Sele.)
Wet: Intravetrious Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor

Fundo: cotton wool spots (ischemic injury)
Clinical: CENTRAL loss of vision

15

4 fundoycopic findings for Diabetic retinopathy?
Tx if proliferative?

1. Hard exudates
2. Flame Hemorrhages
3. Cotton wool spots
4. Neovascularization (if proliferative)

Tx Proliferative: Laser therapy

16

Retinal detachment:
Causes (2)
Sx (3)
Fundoscopic exam findings

Trauma, DM
Flashing lights + Floaters + vision loss--> permanent w.o tx.

Fundoycopic exam: wrinkled, billowed, pale retina

17

Papilledema:
Cause + fundo findings?

^ ICP
Swollen blurry optic disc (CN II inflammation)

18

Central Artery of Retina Occlusion:
Presentation and fundo findings?

Painless sudden loss of vision
Fundo: cherry spot on macula

19

Lysosomal storage diseases: two eye findings

cherry spots on macula, corneal clouding

20

Arcus Seniles

lipid accumulation in cornea--> blue/white ring

21

Anterior Uveitis causes (4) and sx. (3)

Causes: HLAB27 diseases, sarcoidosis, juvenile arthritis (more chronic inflammatory disease than infection)

Sx: pain/ redness, photophobia, pus/ inflammatory cells in ant. chamber

22

Posterior Uveitis: causes (4)

More infectious disease than chronic inflammatory disease:
CMV
TOXO
Cat scratch disease
IBS/ psoriatic arthritis (HLAB27 diseases)

23

#1 cause of conjunctivitis + two others

#1 adenovirus (bilateral)
2. bacterial (mucopurulent discharge)
3. Allergic (bilateral, symmetric, seasonal, rhinitis)

24

Where is bilirubin deposited in jaundice?
What is another name for jaundice?

Conjunctiva
"scleral ictiris"