Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy (Pharmacology Ch 43) Flashcards Preview

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Antimicrobial therapy
("antibiotic therapy")

-use of medications to treat infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi


Bactericidal medications

-directly lethal to the micro-organism


Bacteriostatic medications

-slow the growth of the micro-organism, but it is actually destroyed by the client's immune system response of phagocytic cells (macrophages, neutrophils) to eliminate the bacteria


Gram stain

-an aspirate of the body fluid is examined under a microscope, where micro-organisms can be identified directly


Culture of the fluid

-the aspirate is applied to culture medium, and colonies of the micro-organism are grown over several days
-may be preferable to gram stain in cases where positive id cannot be made by gram stain
-obtain PRIOR to treatment w/ antibiotics


Sensitivity of the Micro-organism to the antimicrobial

-for organisms where resistance is common, a test for sensitivity of the organism to various antimicrobials is performed
-disk diffusion test (Kirby-Bauer test) = most common. Degree of medication sensitivity is determined by amount of bacteria-free zone on the disk


Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)

-the amount of antibiotic to completely inhibit bacterial growth but does not kill the bacteria


Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)

-the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that kills 99.9% of the bacteria