What is a theodicy?
A justifcation of God in the face of evil and suffering
Name three scholars who have theodicies
Augustine, Ireneaus and Hick
How does Augustine’s theodicy begin?
God created the world perfectly
What is evil, according to Augustine?
Evil is a privation or an absence of good
What is a privation?
A lack of an essential characteristic or property
What is Augustine’s example of privation?
Blindness is a privation / absence of sight
What three key terms make up the Inconsistent Triad?
Onmipotence, omni-benevolence and evil exists
Name two types of evil
Natural evil and moral evil
Give an example of moral evil
Murder, stealing, terrorist attacks, telling lies
Give an example of natural evil
Hurricane, tsunmai, earthquake, disease
Who/what does Augustine blame for natural evil?
The Fall of angels causing disharmony in the natural world
Who does Augustine blame for moral evil?
The Fall of mankind - Adam and Eve
What is the first sin called, committed by Adam and Eve?
Why is God justified in punishing all humans?
Because all humans were seminally present in Adam and share in the original sin
How does Augustine describe all evil and suffering?
Either sin or punishment for sin
For Augustine, why does god send Jesus?
To rescue people from sin and to take their punishment on himself
How do scholars’ describe Augustine’s theodicy?
What is Scleiermacher’s logical argument against Augustine?
How could a prefect world go wrong?
How did Schleiermacher accuse Augustine of making a moral error?
Why did God create Hell? Did he know humans would choose evil?
How does Schleiermacher accuse Augustine of making a scientific error?
Biological error - all humans cannot have been seminally present in Adam;
How does B. Davies support Augustine?
Evil is not properly a substance but “a gap between what there is and what there ought to be”
How is free will used to support the Augustinian theodicy?
Genuine free will requires the possibility to choose evil
How does Ireneaus suggest God created the world?
With evil and suffering; not perfectly
How does Ireneaus suggest humans were created?
In the image of God but after his likeness (need to develop into the likeness of God)
How do humans develop into the likeness of God?
By experiencing suffering, making good choices and developing character and virtues
Give examples of virtues
compassion, charity, kindness
Why did Adam and Eve eat the fruit from the forbidden tree, according to Ireneaus?
They were immature, like children, and made a mistake
What example doe Ireneaus use of humans and God cooperating?
The potter moulding the clay
Why does Ireneaus use the example of the potter?
Humans need to cooperate with God in order to develop
How is Jesus seen by Ireneaus?
As sent by God as part of the learning process and also suffered
What does Ireneaus envisage after death?
The traditional concept of God’s judgement and the separation of those who reject God and those who make peace with God
Who developed Ireneaus’ theodicy?
What does Hick call the Irenaean Theodicy?
A soul-making theodicy
How does Hick describe our world?
As a vale of soul-making
Why does Hick describe our world as soul-making?
Because it seems purpose built to teach us and develop virtues / character
What reasons does Hick give for God not making humans perfect?
They would be like robots and would not be free to choose to do good or to love
What is epistemic distance?
God’s existence is not obvious to humans in order to allow free will.
What is Peter Vardy’s example to support the idea humans need to be free to choose to love?
The King and the peasant girl
Where does Hick argue everyone will end up?
What key term describes Hick’s idea that all will go to heaven?
What is Mackie’s criticism of the Ireneaen Theodicy?
“could not our world be a little more hospitable and still teach us what we need to know?”
How does Swinburne counter Mackie’s argument?
By saying this would be a “toy world where things matter, but not very much”
Why does Dostoyevsky disagree with the Ireneaen Theodicy?
The suffering of innocents cannot be justified and God must be malevolent to allow it
What does Ivan Karamzov decide to do at the end of Dostoyevsky’s novel?
To return his ticket to heaven
How does DZ Phillips argue against the Ireneaen Theodicy?
True love does not use evil as a means to an end
How does Process Theology seek to justify God?
God is not omnipotent, suffers alongside his creation and empathises with us
How does Swinburne suggest that God limits suffering?
By allowing death to be part of the world, suffering is not infinte
What argument can be used against Hick’s universal salvation?
That it seems unjust to allow both Mother Theresa and Hitler into heaven
For Hick, why do we need natural laws?
It is part of the predictable universe
Explain the Inconsistent Triad
God cannot be omnipotent (able to prevent evil) or God cannot be all loving (willing to prevent evil) or evil does not exist