Flashcards in Problem of Evil Deck (28)
Define evil ?
Contrary to Gods will and the cause of suffering
Mere absence of good, anything physically or morally wrong
Natural evil ?
Causes of suffering within natural world
Moral evil ?
Intentional human action
Commission or omission (not getting children vaccinated)
Why is there a grey area between moral and natural evil ?
Human actions combined with natural evil can exacerbate suffering e.g building on a fault line
What is surd evil ?
Type of natural evil that’s unexplainable
John Stuart mill what did he say ?
Evil alone is enough to prove God does or does not exist, if he does exist then he is not all loving
Argument in response to design argument and used same logic (evil in the world can be used as proof of a malevolent creator)
What paper did JL Mackie make ?
‘Evil In omnipotence’
Back ground on the inconsistent triad
Epicuruss idea- developed by Augustine- then developed by Mackie
- Abrahamic monotheistic God’s require belief in them being omnipotent, benevolent and omniscient
- theists believe there are no limits to what a God can do but Mackie elites the presence of evil contradicts this view
Inconsistent triad ?
Made by Mackie
- if God we’re all loving there would be no evil
- if he is omnipotent then there is nothing he cannot do so can overcome evil
- but there is evil and suffering in the world
Triad states all three omni qualities can’t be present at the same time as only two can in conjunction with the existence of evil
‘ the conjunction of any two propositions means a negation of the third’
A wholly good omnipotent being would eliminate evil completely
What type of argument is the logical problem of evil ?
A priori deductive as long as premises are true, the conclusion is true, conclusion arrived from reasoning not experimentation
Three modern developers of the logical POE?
Mackie, GS Paul and W Rowe
What is evidential problem of evil ?
- amount of suffering in the world makes it improbable that God exists, pointless suffering counts against gods suffering
What did William Rowe do ?
Developed evidential POE
- reasonable to allow limited suffering and to allow humans to grow and develop
- couldn’t accept intense and animal suffering
- loving God would prevent intense animal suffering as it’s pointless so God probably doesn’t exist
What did Gregory S Paul say ?
Argued death of so many innocent children challenges Gods existence
- millions of children die a year from evil causes , all loving Gods wouldnt permit such suffering so God doesn’t exist
What did Hume do ?
Developed Eoicurean paradox into trilemma staring only 2 of the statements can exist
- god doesn’t exist
- omnipresent but malicious
- all loving but not omnipotent
Accepting any of them leads to the Gods of classical theism
Solutions to POE?
Deny existence of God so there is no problem
Deny evil so there is no problem e.g monists think evil is an illusion
What is a theodicy ?
An attempt to show God is classical theistic in the face of evil and suffering
Idea God created the world and after has no ongoing influence on it
Privation of good ?
Augustine’s way of defining evil
Sections of Augustine theodicy ?
Evil is a product of moral agents not god (humans and angels who he gave free will)
We deserve punishment
Principle of plentitude
Augustine’s theodicy ?
Based on genesis story and fall, also Romans 5
Evil is product of moral agents not God
- G created world ex-nihilo and perfectly with no evil
- gave us the gift of FW to have true faith in God
- FW allows for faith but misuse free will e.g A&E = suffering
- evil lies within man
We deserve punishment;
- we are seminally present in the looks of Adam
- we inherit their sin and suffering is a product of sin
- people who use FW to inflict suffering deserve punishment in hell
- just God punishes wrong doing so there is a need for hell
- fair and just God offers salvation to redeem ourselves by using FW to do good
- can use FW to seek salvation through JC and get into heaven (Romans 5, Jesus died and atoned for Adam and Eves sin
- world when viewed as a whole is perfect
- world and after life viewed together is just and fair (something may look evil to us but as God sees it, it may be good as he sees the bigger picture)
Principle of plentitude
- world needs to be as diverse as possible to be perfect
What was Aquinas’s development of Augustinian theodicy ?
- V similar to Augustine
- sin is a privation
- sin needs punishment
- punishment is justice
- existence of sin enhances perfection in the world
- suffering helps develop qualities such as patients
Religious responses to Augustinian theodicy ?
What is free will ?
Ability given by God to freely chose
Advantage of it ?
- ability to choose to do Good and follow God and ability to experience Gods mercy and go to heaven
- gives humans ability to choose evil
- to sin
Weaknesses/ criticisms of Augustinian theodicy ?
- Big Bang contradicts theory as it replaces Garden of Eden and evolutions explains we evolved from chaos to order rather the visa Vera
- places apple there knowing A and E would eat it
- how can a perfect world go wrong
- they predate humans so how could we have caused them
- God would forgive and not punish for something so small
- judged on our own merit not predecessors
Existence of hell
- contradicts all loving God
Hick and Indian type theodicies ?
(Vale of soul making theodicies)
Humans created imperfect ;
(Immature beings need to develop... Gen 1:26 let us make human kind in our own image, according to our likeness)
- suffering allows growth and development
- given free will to have true faith in God that requires willing cooperation in God
- some misuse FW
- compatible with science (Hick) 2 star evolutionary process, biological then spiritual
Development of second order goods;
- suffering allows development of qualities mor valuable then qualities given to use e.g bravery and empathy
Role of evil
- natural and moral evil are essential for soul making
- moral evil= resist temptation for evil and do good
- natural evil allows us to help others and develop
- world without suffering is not suitable for development, Hick says we would be morally static without
- G created humans st this distance so he’s not immediately knowable to us
- G needed us to have FW
- doesn’t intervene as part of his plan
Eschatological verification (parable of celestial city)
- most require afterlife to complete development as there is salvation for all which allows allows for Gods omnibenevolence
Strengths of Augustinian theodicy ?
Biblically based= strengthens idea for some Christians
- uses notions of final judgement and began and hell which upholds a just and fair God in comparison to a God who lets everyone into heaven e.g Iranian type theodicies
Places blame on man eager than God
- therefore absolves God of the responsibility of evil
Explains moral and natural evil
May have been satisfactory at the time but now seems outdated