Problem Solving and Decision-Making Flashcards Preview

MCAT Behavioral sciences > Problem Solving and Decision-Making > Flashcards

Flashcards in Problem Solving and Decision-Making Deck (32)
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1

Functional Fixedness

Can thus be defined as the inability to consider how to use an object in a nontraditional manner.

2

Algorithm

Formula or procedure for solving a certain type of problem.

3

Deductive (top-down) reasoning

Starts from a set of general rules and draws conclusions from the information given.

4

Inductive reasoning (bottom-up)

Seeks to create a theory via generalizations.

5

Availability heuristic

Is used when we try to decide how likely something is

6

Representative heuristic

Involves categorizing items on the basis of whether they fit the prototypical, stereotypical, or representative image of the category.

7

Base rate fallacy

Using prototypical or stereotypical factors while ignoring actual numerical information

8

Disconformation principle

The evidence obtained from testing demonstrated that the solution does not work.

9

Confirmation bias

Is the tendency to focus on information that fits an individual's beliefs, while rejecting information that goes against them.

10

Overconfidence

Tendency to erroneously interpret one's decisions, knowledge, and beliefs as infallible.

11

Belief perseverance

Refers to the inability to reject a particular belief despite clear evidence to the contrary

12

Intution

Ability to act on perceptions that may not be supported by available evidence-developed by experience

13

Goal of reinforcement

To make a behavior more likely to occur

14

Fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement

Rewards are provided after a specified number of responses

15

Variable ratio schedule of reinforcement

Rewards are provided after an unpredictable number of responses

16

Fixed interval schedule of reinforcement

Rewards to a response are provided after a specified time interval has passed

17

Variable interval schedule of reinforcement

Rewards to a response are provided after an unpredictable time interval has passed

18

Dissociation

experience of a split between different aspects of psychological functioning: disruption in identity, memory, or consciousness

19

Sensorimotor

(birth to 2 years): Piaget stages of learning: children learn to separate themselves from objects. They recognize their ability to act on and affect the outside world, and learn that things continue to exist even when they are out of sight (object permanence)

20

Preoperational

(2-7 years): Children learn to use language while they continue to think very literally. They maintain an egocentric (self-centered) world view and have difficulty taking the perspective of others

21

Concrete Operational

(7-11 years): Children become more logical in concrete thinking. They develop inductive reasoning, they can reason from specific situations to general concepts

22

Formal operational

(11 years and older): Children develop the ability to think logically in the abstract. They develop deductive reasoning skills-the ability to apply general concepts in specific situations--and they learn to think theoretically and philosophically

23

Learning theory of language development

(Behaviorist theory) Argues that language is a form of behavior and thus is learned through operant conditioning

24

Nativist theory of language development

Emphasizes innate biological mechanisms-the language acquisition device

25

Interactionist theory

Emphasizes the interplay between environmental cues and innate biology in the development of language

26

Broca's area

Located in the frontal lobe, and is primarily involved in speech production

27

Wernicke's area

Found in the temporal lobe, and contributes primarily to the understanding of language

28

Amygdala

Responsible for the emotional reactions of fear and anger

29

Hypothalamus

Regulates the autonomic nervous system's sympathetic and parasympathetic functions, including the effects of stressors on heart rate, sweating, and arousal

30

3 Major components of attitudes

1. Affective component: a person's feelings or emotions about an object, person, or event
2. Behavioral component: influence that attitudes have on behavior
3. Cognitive component: beliefs or knowledge about a specific object of interest

31

Cognitive dissonance

Conflict or inconsistency between internal attitudes and external behaviors. People have an inherent desire to avoid the internal discomfort associated with a mismatch between attitudes and behaviors. To resolve cognitive dissonance, people either change their attitudes towards a situation, change their perception of their behavior, or modify the behavior.

32

Stages of Sleep

1. Stage 1: light sleep, alpha waves (state of wakefulness, but one that is more relaxed than the fully alert state)-REM sleep (rapid eye movement)
2. Stage 2: associated with bursts of brain wave activity that indicate a full transition into sleep
3. Stage 3: delta waves, much longer than alpha waves, are first seen, reflecting the transition into deep sleep
4. Stage 4: deepest sleep: almost entirely delta waves