Flashcards in Problem Solving and Decision-Making Deck (32)
Can thus be defined as the inability to consider how to use an object in a nontraditional manner.
Formula or procedure for solving a certain type of problem.
Deductive (top-down) reasoning
Starts from a set of general rules and draws conclusions from the information given.
Inductive reasoning (bottom-up)
Seeks to create a theory via generalizations.
Is used when we try to decide how likely something is
Involves categorizing items on the basis of whether they fit the prototypical, stereotypical, or representative image of the category.
Base rate fallacy
Using prototypical or stereotypical factors while ignoring actual numerical information
The evidence obtained from testing demonstrated that the solution does not work.
Is the tendency to focus on information that fits an individual's beliefs, while rejecting information that goes against them.
Tendency to erroneously interpret one's decisions, knowledge, and beliefs as infallible.
Refers to the inability to reject a particular belief despite clear evidence to the contrary
Ability to act on perceptions that may not be supported by available evidence-developed by experience
Goal of reinforcement
To make a behavior more likely to occur
Fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement
Rewards are provided after a specified number of responses
Variable ratio schedule of reinforcement
Rewards are provided after an unpredictable number of responses
Fixed interval schedule of reinforcement
Rewards to a response are provided after a specified time interval has passed
Variable interval schedule of reinforcement
Rewards to a response are provided after an unpredictable time interval has passed
experience of a split between different aspects of psychological functioning: disruption in identity, memory, or consciousness
(birth to 2 years): Piaget stages of learning: children learn to separate themselves from objects. They recognize their ability to act on and affect the outside world, and learn that things continue to exist even when they are out of sight (object permanence)
(2-7 years): Children learn to use language while they continue to think very literally. They maintain an egocentric (self-centered) world view and have difficulty taking the perspective of others
(7-11 years): Children become more logical in concrete thinking. They develop inductive reasoning, they can reason from specific situations to general concepts
(11 years and older): Children develop the ability to think logically in the abstract. They develop deductive reasoning skills-the ability to apply general concepts in specific situations--and they learn to think theoretically and philosophically
Learning theory of language development
(Behaviorist theory) Argues that language is a form of behavior and thus is learned through operant conditioning
Nativist theory of language development
Emphasizes innate biological mechanisms-the language acquisition device
Emphasizes the interplay between environmental cues and innate biology in the development of language
Located in the frontal lobe, and is primarily involved in speech production
Found in the temporal lobe, and contributes primarily to the understanding of language
Responsible for the emotional reactions of fear and anger
Regulates the autonomic nervous system's sympathetic and parasympathetic functions, including the effects of stressors on heart rate, sweating, and arousal
3 Major components of attitudes
1. Affective component: a person's feelings or emotions about an object, person, or event
2. Behavioral component: influence that attitudes have on behavior
3. Cognitive component: beliefs or knowledge about a specific object of interest
Conflict or inconsistency between internal attitudes and external behaviors. People have an inherent desire to avoid the internal discomfort associated with a mismatch between attitudes and behaviors. To resolve cognitive dissonance, people either change their attitudes towards a situation, change their perception of their behavior, or modify the behavior.