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Flashcards in Problem solving: In search of solutions Deck (11)
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1

What is problem solving?

Problem solving refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a
goal that is not readily attainable.

2

What are problems of inducing structure>

Problems of inducing structure. The person must discover the relations among the parts of the problem.

3

What are problems of arrangement?

Problems of arrangement. The person must arrange the parts in a way that satisfies
some criterion. The parts can usually be arranged in many ways. However, only one
or a few of the arrangements form a solution. The string problem and the anagrams in Figure 8.3 fit in this categorgy

4

What are problems of transformation?

Problems of transformation. The person must carry out a sequence of transformations in order to reach a specific goal.

5

What is functional fixedness?

functional fixedness—the
tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use.

6

What is a mental set?

A mental set exists when people persist in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past.

7

What is insight?

Insight occurs when people suddenly discover the correct solution to a problem after struggling with it for a while.

8

What is trial and error?

Trial and error involves trying possible solutions sequentially and discarding those that are in error until one works.

9

What is a heuristic?

A heuristic is a guiding principle or “rule of thumb” used in solving
problems or making decisions.

10

What is an incubation effect?

An incubation effect occurs when
new solutions surface for a previously unsolved problem after a period of not consciously thinking about the problem.

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