What is problem solving?
Problem solving refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a
goal that is not readily attainable.
What are problems of inducing structure>
Problems of inducing structure. The person must discover the relations among the parts of the problem.
What are problems of arrangement?
Problems of arrangement. The person must arrange the parts in a way that satisfies
some criterion. The parts can usually be arranged in many ways. However, only one
or a few of the arrangements form a solution. The string problem and the anagrams in Figure 8.3 fit in this categorgy
What are problems of transformation?
Problems of transformation. The person must carry out a sequence of transformations in order to reach a specific goal.
What is functional fixedness?
tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use.
What is a mental set?
A mental set exists when people persist in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past.
What is insight?
Insight occurs when people suddenly discover the correct solution to a problem after struggling with it for a while.
What is trial and error?
Trial and error involves trying possible solutions sequentially and discarding those that are in error until one works.
What is a heuristic?
A heuristic is a guiding principle or “rule of thumb” used in solving
problems or making decisions.
What is an incubation effect?
An incubation effect occurs when
new solutions surface for a previously unsolved problem after a period of not consciously thinking about the problem.