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Flashcards in Product Deck (37):

Consumer Products

used by the ultimate customer


Business Products

organisations purchase products that assist in providing other products for resale
(some are both consumer and business eg computers)


Convenience Products

-Product: eg toothpaste, handsoap etc
- Price: Relatively inexpensive
- Distribution: Widespread (many outlets)
- Promotion: price awareness and availability stressed
- Brand Loyalty: Aware of brand but will accept substitutes
- Purchase Behaviour: Frequent purchases, little time and effort spent shopping


Shopping Product

- Product: Cameras, TV,airline ticket etc
- Price: Fairly expensive
- Distribution: Large number of selective outlet
- Promotion: Differentiation from competitors stressed
- Brand Loyalty: prefer specific brands but will accept substitutes
Purchase Behaviour: Infrequent purchases made; needs much comparison shopping time


Specialty Product

- Product: Rolls Royce car, heart surgery etc
- Price: Usually very expensive
- Distribution: Very limited
- Promotion: Uniqueness, brand and status stressed
- Brand Loyalty: Very brand loyal, will not accept substitutes
- Purchase Behaviour: Infrequent purchases; needs much extensive search and decision time


Product Life Cycle

Describes the stages a new product goes through in the market place:
- Introduction
- Growth
- Maturity
- Decline


Introduction Stage

When the product is introduced to the intended target market
- Sales grow slowly
- Minimal profit ( often a result of large investment costs in product development)


objective and marketing mix actions

Objective: gain awareness
Competition: few
Product: one
Price: Skimming or Penetrating
Promotion: inform, educate, stimulate 'primary demand'
Distribution: limited (can be challenging as channel intermediaries may be hesitant to carry a new product)


Skimming Pricing

Set high initial price
- helps recover from development costs
- can capitalize on price insensitivity of early buyers
-however can attract competitors as they see opportunity for profit


Penetration pricing

Low initial price
- discourage competitors entering market
- helps build volume in units
- however company must closely monitor costs


Primary Demand

create a desire for the product class rather than specific brand as there are few competitors at this stage


Growth Stage

Rapid increase in sales
- competitors appear
- profit usually peaks at this stage
- product sales grow at an increasing rate (new purchasers + repeat purchasers)


objectives and marketing mix actions

Objective: stress differentiation
Competition: more
Product: more versions
Price: gain market share
Promotion: stress points of difference (new features, improvements)
Distribution: more outlets (fight for shelf space in retail outlets)


Maturity Stage

Slowing of total industry sales or product class revenue
-sales increase at a decreasing rate
- marginal competitors begin to leave the market
- most consumers are either repeat purchasers or have trialed and abandoned the product
- profit declines due to fierce price comp btw competitors + cost of gaining new buyers


Maturity stage
objectives and marketing mix actions

Objective: maintain brand loyalty
Competition: many
Product: full product line
Price: defend market share
Promotion: reminder orientated
Distribution: maximum outlets


Decline Stage

When sales drop
- due to environmental changes (eg fax machines when email came in)


Decline Stage
objective and marketing mix actions

Objective: harvesting or deletion
Competition: reduced
Product: best sellers
Price: stay profitable
Promotion: minimal promo
Distribution: fewer outlets


Product Deletion

Dropping product from the line
- extreme move, not taken lightly as there will still be core customers using the product


Product Harvesting

Retains product but reduces marketing costs
- product will still be offered but no advertising c]money spent
- maintains ability to meet customer requests


Product adoption process

Awareness- consumer becomes aware of product through word of mouth, promotional activities or incidental exposure
Interest - consumer gains interest in product and seeks information
Evaluation - consumer evaluates information, decideds wheter to try product
Trial- consumer examines and tries out product
Adoption- consumer decides to purchase product, evaluates and determines if they will repurchase


Diffusion of innovation

The theory that social groups influence the decisions made by individuals in such a way that innovations are adopted by the market in a predictable pattern over time


Product Modification

altering one of more of a products characteristics, such as its quality, performance, or appearance, to increase the products value to customers and increase sales


Market Modification

a company tries to find new customers, increase a products use among existing customers, or create new situations


Re positioning the product

A company changes the place a product occupies in a consumers mind relative to competitive products.. by changing one or more of the four marketing mix elements



companys' use of a name, phrase, design, symbols or combination of these to identify its products and distinguish them from those of competitors


Multiproduct branding Strategy

A company uses one name for all its products in a product class
eg: Samsung, Sony, Huggies, Honda


Multiproduct branding: Capitalizing on brand equity

consumers with a good experience with product will transfer this favorable attitude to other items in the product class with the same name


Multiproduct branding:
Product line extension

using current brand name to enter a new market segment in its product class

pro: can result in lower advertising costs because the same name is used across all products thus raising the level of brand awareness

con: product line extension may come at the expense of other items in the product line


Multiproduct branding:

combines a corporate or family brand with a new brand, to distinguish a part of its product line from others
eg: Porsche Carrera (high end ) and Porsche Boxster (lower end)


Multiproduct branding:
brand extention

using a current brand name to enter a different product class.
eg: Honda extending into snowblowers, lawn mowers, marine engines etc

-however, too many uses for one brand name can dilute the meaning of a brand for customers


Multiproduct branding:

the pairing of two brand names of two manufacturers on a single product

- allows a firm to enter new product classes and capitalize on an already established brand name in that product class


Multibranding Strategy

giving each product a distinct name
useful when each brand is intended for a different market segment
eg Disnet uses Miramax and Touchstone Pictures names for films directed at adults and uses itd Disney name for kids films


Fighting brands

some multibrand companies introduce new product brands as defensive moves to counteract competition. Their chief purpose is to confront competition.


Multibranding disadvantages

compared with multiproduct strategy, advertising and promo costs tend to be higher
company must generate awareness among customers and retailers for each new brand name without the benefit of previous impressions


Multibranding advantages

each brand is unique to each market segment
there is no risk that a product failure will affect other products in the line


Private Branding

company manufactures products but sells them under the brand name of a wholesaler or retailer.
eg sears, Walmart,

large retailers that have their own established brand name

popular because it typically provides high profits for manufacturers and reseller


Mixed Branding Strategy

firm markets products under its own name and that of the a reseller because the segment that is attracted to the reseller is different from its own market