Flashcards in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Deck (28):
What type of cells evolved first?
What don't prokaryotic cells have?
Organelles bound by membranes
What do prokaryotic cells have instead of a membrane bound nucleus?
One circular chromosome suspended in the cytoplasm.
What are plasmids?
Smaller rings of DNA
What is a nucleoid?
A singular circular DNA molecule that is condensed?
What do the folds in the cell membrane do?
Helps localise metabolism
What are the pilli used for?
Used for exchange of plasmids. Used to attach to surfaces
What does the flagellum do?
Used for locomotion
What is the mucilaginous capsule?
Jelly-like polysaccharide helps the cell to adhere to surfaces
What is the peptidogclycon wall made of ?
A matrix of polysaccharides linked by short polypeptide chains.
What does the peptidoglycon wall do?
Maintains the cells shape and prevents excessive uptake of water.
What does the eukaryotic nuclear membrane consist of?
A double layer of membranes with pores to let very late molecules pass through
What is eukaryote DNA wrapped around?
(Positively charged) Histone proteins
What are nucleosomes?
The combination of DNA wrapped around histone proteins
What is the cytosol?
The liquid part of the membrane
What is the cytosol organised by?
What do endomembranes do?
Compartmentalise different parts of the metabolism
How many membranes do micro bodies have?
How are micro bodies formed?
By budding from the ER or golgi apparatus
Give an example of a microbody
What are microvilli?
Membrane extensions that greatly increase the surface area for absorption
What does MTOC stand for?
Microtubule organising centre
What does the central vacuole do?
Stores sugars ions and pigments as well as maintaining the turgidity of the cell
What does the cell wall do?
Maintains the cells shape as well as preventing excessive uptake of water.
What is the middle lamellae composed of
What does the middle lamellae do?
Glues neighbouring cells together at their cell walls
What are plasmodesmata?
Cytoplasmic links between neighbouring cells.