Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Flashcards Preview

Biology - Unit 1 > Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Deck (28):
1

What type of cells evolved first?

Prokaryotic

2

What don't prokaryotic cells have?

Organelles bound by membranes

3

What do prokaryotic cells have instead of a membrane bound nucleus?

One circular chromosome suspended in the cytoplasm.

4

What are plasmids?

Smaller rings of DNA

5

What is a nucleoid?

A singular circular DNA molecule that is condensed?

6

What do the folds in the cell membrane do?

Helps localise metabolism

7

What are the pilli used for?

Used for exchange of plasmids. Used to attach to surfaces

8

What does the flagellum do?

Used for locomotion

9

What is the mucilaginous capsule?

Jelly-like polysaccharide helps the cell to adhere to surfaces

10

What is the peptidogclycon wall made of ?

A matrix of polysaccharides linked by short polypeptide chains.

11

What does the peptidoglycon wall do?

Maintains the cells shape and prevents excessive uptake of water.

12

What does the eukaryotic nuclear membrane consist of?

A double layer of membranes with pores to let very late molecules pass through

13

What is eukaryote DNA wrapped around?

(Positively charged) Histone proteins

14

What are nucleosomes?

The combination of DNA wrapped around histone proteins

15

What is the cytosol?

The liquid part of the membrane

16

What is the cytosol organised by?

endomembranes

17

What do endomembranes do?

Compartmentalise different parts of the metabolism

18

How many membranes do micro bodies have?

1

19

How are micro bodies formed?

By budding from the ER or golgi apparatus

20

Give an example of a microbody

Lysosomes

21

What are microvilli?

Membrane extensions that greatly increase the surface area for absorption

22

What does MTOC stand for?

Microtubule organising centre

23

What does the central vacuole do?

Stores sugars ions and pigments as well as maintaining the turgidity of the cell

24

What does the cell wall do?

Maintains the cells shape as well as preventing excessive uptake of water.

25

What is the middle lamellae composed of

Pectin

26

What does the middle lamellae do?

Glues neighbouring cells together at their cell walls

27

What are plasmodesmata?

Cytoplasmic links between neighbouring cells.

28

Which organelles in plants have a double membrane?

Nucleus, Mitochondria, Chloroplast