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1

NAME 4 REQUIREMENTS OF AN IDEAL MEDIUM FOR SOWING SEEDS

1. good water holding capacity
2. neutral pH
3. good air filled porosity
4. free of pest and disease
5. low nutrient

2

NAME 3 EXAMPLES OF LARGE SEED

1. Lathyrus odoratus
2. Cucurbita pepo
3. Phaseolus vulgaris
4. Zea mays
5. Quercus robur
6.Helianthus annuus
7. Vicia faba

3

NAME 3 EXAMPLES OF MEDIUM SEED

1. Lactuca sativa
2. Allium cepa
3. Solanum lycopersicum

4

NAME 3 EXAMPLES OF FINE SEED

1. Begonia semperflorens
2. Lobelia erinus
3. Digitalis pupurea
4. Nicotinia sylvestris
5. Petunia multiflora

5

DESCRIBE PROPAGATION FROM FINE SEED

1. clean seed tray of appropriate size for number of seeds
2. sterile seed compost (eg John Innes)
3. mix seed with silver sand and distribute evenly, not covering
4. water from below
5. keep in warm environment (15˚-20˚)
6. provide ventilation
7. check for disease and pests

6

NAME 4 PESTS THAT CAN DAMAGE SEEDLINGS DURING ROOTING

1. slug
2. vine weevil ( indoors and outdoors)
3. aphids (indoors and outdoors)
4. sciarid fly (indoors)
5. rabbit

7

NAME 2 DISEASES THAT CAN DAMAGE SEEDLINGS DURING ROOTING

1. botrytis ( fungus, in humid conditions)
2. damping off ( fungus, in humid conditions))

8

NAME 6 WAYS TO AVOID PEST AND DISEASE IN PLANT PROPAGATION

1. clean hands and clothes
2. clean equipment
3. sterile compost
4. healthy material
5. clean water
6. monitoring for pest and disease
7. avoid over watering
8. sow seed thinly
9. cover under glass or plastic

9

DESCRIBE STAGES (secondary cultivation) OF PREPARING OPEN GROUND FOR DIRECT SEED SOWING

1. create stale seed bed ( 2 weeks prior)
2. rake roughly level
3. consolidate by shuffling or rolling
4. apply base dressing (superphosphate, 120g/m2)
5. rake to fine tilth (10-30 mm)

10

DEFINE TILTH

Tilth is the physical condition of soil in relation to plant growth
Suitable tilth will have good aeration and water retention capability
Finest tilth needed for small seeds

11

DESCRIBE LARGE SEED SOWING IN DRILLS
OF A NAMED EXAMPLE

eg Vicia faba
1. Taut garden lines are created between canes
2. A hoe is used to create a drill 50mm deep along the line
3. Seeds are spaced 150 mm in drills spaced 450mm apart
4. Soil is drawn over seeds
5. Soil is tamped down and watered

12

DESCRIBE PREPARATION OF A CONTAINER FOR SOWING FINE SEED

1. Choose suitable tray or pot
2. Clean, sterile equipment
3. Sterile growing media
4. Suitable growing media e.g. John Innes seed or loam-less peat or peat alternative based
5. Over fill container with growing media
6. Tap down to settle growing media
7. Level off
8. Firm with firming/presser board
9. Sieve fine layer of growing media on surface
10. Pre-soak container

13

DESCRIBE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY CULTIVATION FOR SOWING OF LOLIUM PERENNE (perennial ryegrass)

i) Primary Cultivation
Single dig, rotavate or plough

ii) Production of Final Tilth
-Break down the clods of soil with a fork, rotavate or harrow
-Remove any large stones and weeds.
-Rake the soil level
- Consolidate it by treading or
rolling
- Apply fertiliser.
- Finally rake the soil in all directions to
produce a tilth of approximately 10mm depth.

14

DESCRIBE SOWING OF LOLIUM PERENNE (annual ryegrass)

1. Sowing Time
April/May or September/October.
2. Sowing Rate
25 – 35 grams per m².
3. Sowing Method
The seed is weighed out and divided in half before being
sown broadcast on a still day in two directions.
The seed is lightly raked in and watered.

15

DESCRIBE GROUND PREPARATION AND SOWING OF CARROT SEED IN OPEN GROUND

1. secondary cultivation
- rake ground roughly
-consolidate by treading
-add base dressing
-create fine tilth by raking in 2 directions
2.
- create taut garden lines 15 cm apart
- draw 12mm deep drill with draw hoe
- water
- sow seed thinly
- cover seed with soil

16

DESCRIBE PROPAGATION OF CUCURBITA PEPO IN A PROTECTED ENVIRONMENT

1. preparation
- clean 7-9cm pots/ modules
- sterile media eg John Innes seed compost
- overfill pots and tap down
2. sowing technique
- 2 seeds per pot on their edge (to prevent rotting)
- 10 mm apart and 10-20 mm deep
- cover seed
- label
3. aftercare
- place in warm environment ( 20˚ -24˚)
- water and keep moist
- inspect for pest and disease regularly and remove affected seedlings

17

DESCRIBE COLLECTION OF SPORES FOR PROPAGATION

Spores are collected at the correct stage of development when the sporangia are ripe but not empty and from a healthy plant which is true to type.
The spores are placed in paper bags or envelopes which are labelled
or fronds can be detached from the parent plant and placed in a clean paper bag or envelope, inverted and dried for a week at 21˚C.
The spores are screened and separated from the chaff and stored in an airtight container until required.

18

DESCRIBE A SUITABLE SOWING MEDIA FOR PROPAGATION OF FERNS FROM SPORES

The growing media should be a sterilised loam-less fine textured, free draining, well aerated seed sowing mix, e.g. mixture 2/3 sphagnum moss to 1/3 coarse sand
Alternatively growing media consisting of peat, brick dust and agar solution can also be used.
Both the spores and the growing media can be sterilised using boiling water and the 8 cm pots covered with cling film to prevent contamination.
Place in a propagator with a lid and provide good light

19

DESCRIBE SOWING OF SPORES FOR PROPAGATION OF FERNS

-Suitable containers are filled with the sterilised sowing media e.g. seed tray, pot or petri dish (depending on quantity to be sown) and
-soaked in a tray of water.
-spores are sown broadcast, thinly and evenly on the surface of the growing media,
-covered with a sheet of glass or suitable covering
-labelled.