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Flashcards in Protected Areas Deck (25):

Why were areas initially protected, give an example

Primarily on the basis of their extraordinary scenic value or geological features, such as the Bogd Kahn Mountain in Mongolia which became the first legally protected site due to its beauty in 1783


Why is it problematic to only make protected parks due to aesthetic reasons

Biodiversity and scenic value are rarely congruent, such as the Grand Canyon and Stonehenge which all have a relatively low biodiversity.


What is the endangered species act and when was it released

US Congress passed the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1973 following the loss of Passenger Pigeon, Carolina Parakeet and Ivory-billed Woodpecker and declines of Whooping Crane, Trumpeter Swan, California Condor, Black-footed Ferret and Red Wolf.


What is the 5 criteria needed to be under the ESA

1. There is the present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range.
2. An over utilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes.
3. The species is declining due to disease or predation.
4. There is an inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms.
5. There are other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence.


What are the main problems protected areas face

Being to small
Paper parks
Sustainable use reserves are being created rather than strictly protected ones


What are the main problems protected areas face

Being to small
Paper parks
Sustainable use reserves are being created rather than strictly protected ones


Give a general example of where sustainable use reserves are being created rather than strictly protected ones

In the neotropics than in tropical areas of Africa and Asia (WCMC 2011).


What is a sustainable use area

Sustainable use reserves are often comanaged by local communities to support local livelihoods and preserve cultural legacies and ecosystem services.


What is negative about sustainable use areas

Policies supporting sustainable-use reserves are
relatively recent and firmly grounded in social and political demands from disenfranchised communities rather than in the desire to conserve biological diversity


Give a specific example of where sustainable use reserves are being created rather than strictly protected ones

Sustainable-use reserves and indigenous territories now outweigh that of strictly protected areas by factors of 5.5 and 4.1, respectively due to conflict over land struggles, the subsequent political organization of many local communities, and the emergence of extractive reserve initiatives


Why is human settlement inside a protected are problematic?

The population sizes of several game species in many Amazonian sustainable-use reserves with >0.1 person/km2 have declined (Peres & Palacios 2007)


What is a paper park?

An officially protected area but it'll is being done to manage it effectively


What is the in situ conservation method

The conservation of species in their natural habitats and is considered the most appropriate way of conserving biodiversity. That's why protected areas form a central element of any national strategy to conserve biodiversity.


What is the ex situ conservation method and example

Ex-situ conservation is the preservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats. This involves conservation of genetic resources, as well as wild and cultivated or species. The Kew Seed Bank in England has 1.5 per cent of the world's flora - about 4,000 species - on deposit.


Compare staff numbers between the Brazilian Amazon and U.S park reserves

Current staffing results in an average of one
park guard per 6053 km2 of nature reserve whilst the density of guards in the 367 units of the U.S. National Park Service is more than 70 times greater (Treborgh and Peres, 1995)


Economic benefits for protected marine areas?

Within 5 years of creation, a network of five small reserves in St. Lucia increased adjacent catches of artisanal fishers by between 46 and 90%, depending on the type of gear the fishers used. Roberts et al. 2001


Why do PA's need to be large, give an example

Nature sustains itself only in the context of the
system in which it evolved. Manu National Park is >2 million hectares in size but supports only60-100 giant otters, whereas a population of 500 is considered to be the minimum necessary to ensure genetic and demographic viability.


Define protected area

clearly defined geographic space, recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values ICUN


What is Aichi Target 11

By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water areas and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services


How much of the earth is currently protected

Currently, some 13 per cent of terrestrial areas and 6 per cent of coastal areas are protected, while very little of the open oceans are protected.


How connected are PA's

SAURA ET AL 2017 9.3% of the world is covered by protected connected land, and this average varies extensively between ecoregions. The global goal for PA coverage is 14.7%, indicating that the spatial arrangement of PAs is only partially successful in ensuring connectivity of protected lands.


5 reasons to protect biodiversity

Moral reasons
Aesthetic reasons
Ecosystem services


What is an extractive reserve

An extractive reserve is a type of sustainable use protected area. The land is publicly owned but the people who live there have the right to traditional extractive practices such as hunting, fishing and harvesting wild plants.


Give an example of an extractive reserve and its category

Chico Mendes is a IUCN protected area category VI (protected area with sustainable use of natural resources) which protects those who make a livelihood from rubber tapping


Whilst large PA's are desirable, what are their disadvantages

large MPAs include difficulties of surveillance, enforcement and monitoring of vast offshore areas, as well as high total costs. While the cost per unit area may be lower for large MPAs, conducting surveillance and monitoring in such vast areas requires much more expensive technologies.