Protein Synthesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Protein Synthesis Deck (24)
1

gene

sequence of DNA that codes for protein

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transcription

DNA information copied into RNA form
occurs in nucleus in eukaryotes

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RNA

1st product of transcription

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mRNA

copy of DNA sequence of gene

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tRNA

brings amino acid to ribosome

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rRNA

part of ribosome

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translation

RNA used to make proteins

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RNA polymerase enzyme

controls transcription
1. binds and separates DNA strands in double helix
2. recognizes start and stop sequences of genes
3. transcribes only one DNA strand to produce RNA

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3 phases of transcription

1. initiation
2. elongation
3. termination

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intiation phase of transcription

RNA polymerase recognizes start sequence for gene (promoter) at beginning of gene

11

elongation phase of transcription

transcription begins
RNA polymerase adds RNA bases complementary to DNA bases in gene
RNA polymerase forms RNA copy of DNA

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termination phase of transcription

RNA polymerase recognizes stop sequence at end of gene

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exons

coding sequences for gene

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introns

non-coding sequences between eons

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ribozymes

RNA enzymes
remove introns and splice exons together

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translation

assembles amino acids into proteins

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codon

3 base grouping on mRNA that determines each amino acid for protein

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aminoacyl tRNA synthetase

joins amino acid to its specific tRNA

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anticodon

3 base complement of mRNA codon

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3 steps to translation

1. Initiation
2. Elongation
3. Termination

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initiation phase of translation

mRNA binds ribosome
initiation codon AUG designates start of translation

22

AUG

methionine, first amino acid in new protein

23

elongation phase

amino acids connect to form protein
tRNAs bring amino acids specified by codons in gene to ribosome

24

termination phase of translation

stops protein synthesis when termination codon enters ribosome
UAG UGA or UAA