How many genes in the human genome (known today)?
How many proteins in the cardiac proteome?
100,000 - 200,000
How many proteins in the plasma proteome?
5,000 - 20,000
How many pathways/networks in the cardiac proteome?
200 - 500
But we're only confident about 30 - 50 of them
How does the same human gene/genome make so many proteins?
Alternative splicing, but that's not the point here
Post-translational modifications (phosphorylation, acetylation, myristoylation, etc)
Location, abundance, and interactions with other proteins
What are the three forms of cell death in the heart?
Why is it good to find biomarkers in the plasma rather than in the heart?
Because then you can predict disease, guide treatment, etc. without having to take a heart biopsy! Just need to take blood sample
What are two key technologies in proteomics?
1) Separating complex protein mixtures
2) Characterizing the proteins in the mixtures
What makes a good protein biomarker?
1) Easy to measure, reproducible
2) Provides incremental information
3) Helps guide clinical decision making
How do we best use biomarkers in medicine today?
Look at a panel of (3 or so) biomarkers to increase predictive value
Ex: Troponin I, CRP, BNP together predict risk of acute coronary syndromes
What exactly is a proteomics platform?
Technologies to analyze the proteome