Pseudomonas and Nonfermenting Misc. Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pseudomonas and Nonfermenting Misc. Deck (38):
1

Pseudomonas and Nonfermenting and Misc. Gram-negative bacilli

- may or may not grow on MacConkey
- don't ferment sugars
- some oxidize saccharolytic sugars
- oxidase positive
- TSI slants K/K (nonfermenters)
- use O/F media

2

Nonfermenting means it doesn't ferment _______

glucose

3

Pseudomonas and Nonfermenting (source)

- found in environment (soil, water, plants)
- lots of nosocomial infections
- prefer moist environments (nebulizers, catheters, etc.)
- rarely part of normal flora

4

Pseudomonas and Nonfermenting (treatments)

- can withstand chlorohexidine and ammonium cleaning products
- resistant to multiple antibiotics

5

Pseudomonas and Nonfermenting (clinical infections)

**usually in hospitalized patients**
septicemia
meningitis
osteomyelitis
wound infections

6

Three clinically important bacteria of group

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Acinetobacter species
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

7

- fluorescent group
- grape-like odor, blue-green hue, beta-hemolytic
- oxidase + and catalase +
- oxidizes carbohydrates

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

8

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (virulence factors)

- Endotoxin in LPS, exotoxins (Exotoxin A)
- motile, pili, capsule
- proteases, hemolysin, lecithinase, elastase, DNase, alginate

9

Exotoxin A

similar to diphtheria toxin - blocks proteins synthesis

10

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (clinical infections)

- wound infections and burns
- pulmonary infections, pneumonia (CF patients)
- nosocomial UTI's and bacteremia
- endocarditis, Keratitis
- Hot tub syndrome

11

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (general characteristics)

- beta-hemolytic on SBA
- produces pyoverdin (fluorescence) and pyocyanin (green hue)
- Arginine dihydrolase (ADH) +, citrate +
- grows at 42C
- acetamide utilization
- very drug resistant

12

Drugs to use on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

aminoglycosides work best; drug combo for severe infections

13

P. fluorescens and P. putida

part of fluorescent group (pyoverdin); low virulence (UTI's, wounds); doesn't grow at 42C

14

P. stutzeri, P. mendocina, P. pseudoalcaligenes, P. alcaligenes, P. luteola, P. oryzihabitans

Nonfluorescent group (Pseudomonas)

15

P. stutzeri

wrinkled colonies, light yellow or brown
arginine dihydrolase (ADH) -, starch hydrolysis +

16

Acinetobacter (source)

sometimes normal flora
environment (soil, water)
hospitals (ventilators, humidifiers)

17

strict aerobe, glucose oxidizer
gram-negative coccobacilli
oxidase - and catalase -
non-motile, smooth, non-hemolytic, NLF, purple (on Mac)
resistant to antibiotics

Acinetobacter baumanii

18

Acinetobacter baumanii (clinical infections)

UTI's, pneumonia, endocarditis, septicemia, meningitis, wounds, burns, eye infections

19

A. lwoffii

less virulent
glucose negative
non-hemolytic
more susceptible to antibiotics

20

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (sources)

environment (soil, water)
hospitals (blood drawing equipment, disinfectants, etc.)

21

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (clinical infections/treatment)

pneumonia, endocarditis, bacteremia
SXT (sulfa drugs) is drug of choice

22

- rough colonies, lavender-green, ammonia odor (SBA)
- NLF on Mac
- catalase + and oxidase -
- DNase +, Esculin +, Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) +, Gelatin hydrolysis

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

23

- nosocomial pathogen (pneumonia in CF patients)
- wound infections from contaminated water

Burkholderia cepacia

24

- oxidase variable (weak, slow positive)
- motile, ONPG positive, LDC +, ODC -, ADH -
- utilizes lactose, maltose, glucose and mannitol
- yellow or green on SBA, non-wrinkled
- selective agars: OFPBL, BCSA
- multi-drug resistant

B. cepacia

25

Burkholderia gladioli

plant pathogen

26

Burkholderia mallei

- causes Glander's disease (horses)
- pulmonary infections
- potential bioterrorism agent

27

Burkholderia pseudomallei (source)

commonly presents as pneumonia; found in soil and water (SE Asia)

28

wrinkled colonies; utilizes lactose; "earthy" odor

Burkholderia pseudomallei

29

Moraxella, Oligella, and Psychrobacter

- normal flora
- no carbohydrate utilization
- strict aerobes

30

Moraxella

- oxidase +, non-motile
- rarely cause disease (except M. catarrhalis)

31

Oligella

most often isolated from urinary tract

32

Psychrobacter

non-motile, oxidase +, optimal temp 20C

33

Alcaligenes and Achromobacter

found in water; isolated from hospitalized patients

34

Brevundimonas, Chromobacterium violaceum, Comamonas and Delftia

opportunists

35

Flavobacteriaceae

- long thin bacteria
- hospital contaminants
- non-motile, DNase +, oxidase +, Gelatin hydrolysis +, indole +
- i.e., Elizabethkingia meningoseptica

36

Elizabethkingia meningoseptica

- DOESN'T GROW ON MAC
- meningitis and septicemia in newborns

37

Methylobacterium

- associated with contaminated tap water
- causes bacteremia, peritonitis, synovitis, skin ulcers

38

Shewanella

- smooth, brown/tan colonies on SBA, grows on Mac
- motile (polar flagella), oxidase +, H2S + on TSI