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What's is Neuroscience?

The study of the nervous system

1

Neuroscience is studied within the scientific discipline of psychology called ?

biological psychology

2

Neuroscience is studied within the ______ ________ of psychology, referred to as ______ ________?

Scientific disclpine biological psychology



Page 44

3

• Biological psychology is often called ?

biopsychology or psychobiology



Page 44

4

Highly specialized cell that communicates information in electrical and chemical form; a nerve cell?

Neuron



Pg 45

5

Your brain contains an estimated ______ billion neurons?

100 billion neurons


Page 45

6

Types of neurons ?

Sensory
Motor
Interneurons

Pg 45

7

Type of neuron that conveys information to the brain from specialized receptor cells in sense organs and internal organs?

Sensory neurons



Pg 45

8


• What neuron is the INPUT From sensory organs to the brain and spinal cord

Sensory neuron

9

Type of neuron that signals muscles to relax or contract?

Motor neurons


Pg 45

10

What neuron is the OUTPUT From the brain and spinal cord to the muscle and glands?

Motor neurons



Pg 45

11

2 facts about Interneurons?




• Carry information between other Neurons found in the brain
• By far the most neurons in the brain Are interneurons

12

What type of cells Manufacture myelin?

Glial cells ( glee-ull)

Pg 46

13

What cells are know as glue cells?

Glial cells ( glee-ull)

Pg 46

14

What types of cells are support cells that assist nuerons by providing structural support nutrition and the removal of cell wastes?

Glial cells

15

• What cells outnumber nuerons by about 10-1, but they are much smaller ?

Glial cells or glia, Greek for glue

16

True or false: • Most neuron especially those in your brain are extremely small?

True

17

Multiple short fibers that extend from the neurons cell body and receive information from other neurons or from sensory receptor cells?
Are?

Dendrites


Pg 45

18

Dendrite comes from a Greek word meaning ?

Tree

(Dendrites resemble trees in that they branch out and recieve messages from other neurons or specialized cells)

19

What are the three basic components of a neuron?

Cell body
Dendrites
Axon

20

What processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contains the cells nucleus?

Cell body

21

What is also called the soma?

Cell body

22

What has a long tube-like structure?

Axon

23

What is a long fluid-filled tube that carries a neurons messages to other body areas?

Axon


Pg 45

24

True or false: axons carry information FROM the neuron TO other cells?

True

25


• What is the White fatty casing on axon ?

Myelin Sheath

26

How do neurons Communicate ?

action potential

(All or none)

Pg 47

27

• What is based on movements of ions between the outside and the inside of the cell?

Action potential

28

• When an Action Potential occurs, a ______ _________ is sent to neighboring neurons?

molecular message

29

action potential happens once the stimulus threshold reaches _____?

-60mv

30

• What is the principle that a neuron is either sufficiently stimulated and an action potential occurs ; or the neuron is not sufficiently stimulated and the action potential does not occur ?

All or none law

31

True or false: pertaining to the all or none law, • If the neuron can't fire just a little bit-- it either sends a. Message or it doesn't

True

32

• At each successive axon segment, sodium ion channels open for a mere thousands of a second during an?

Action potential

33

• Potassium leaves and sodium arrives (sodium positive potassium negative ) during an ?

Action potential

34

Fact

• Axons branch out and end near dendrites of neighboring cells

35

The point of communication between two neurons ?

Synapse

Pg 49

36

A message sending neuron is referred to as the?

Presynaptic neuron


Pg 49

37

The message receiving neuron is referred to as?

Post synaptic nueron

38

The tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of an adjourning neuron?

Synaptic gap

39

Branches at the end of the axon that contains tiny pouches, or sacs, called synaptic vesicles?

Axon terminals

40

Tiny pouches or sacs in the axon terminals that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters?

Synaptic vessels

41

Chemical messengers manufactured by a neuron?

Neurotransmitters

42

The process through which neurotransmitter are released by one neuron, cross the synaptic gap and affect adjourning nuerons

Synaptic transsmission

43

The process through which neuro transmitter molecules detach from a post synaptic nueron and are reabsorbed by a pre synaptic nueron so they can be recycled and used again is?

Reuptake

44

What is the resting potential of an action potential

-70mv

45

A point at which a nueron fires or doesn't is called ?

Stimulus threshold

46

Depolarization occurs before the action potential occurs yes or no

Yes

47

• Acetylcholine
• Serotonin
• Norepinephrine
• Dopamine
• Endorphins
• GABA ( gamma -amino butryic acid)
Are important types of ?

Important types of neurotransmitters

48

What is Found in neuromuscular junctions?

Acetylcholine(Ach)

49

What neurotransmitter influences leaning and movement and memory?

Acetylcholine(Ach)

50

What type of neuro-transmitter is Involved in muscular movements?

Acetylcholine(Ach)

51

What neuro-transmitter is Involved in learning and memory(Alzheimer's disease)?

Acetylcholine(Ach)

52

What is Acetylcholine(Ach) function and the disease associated with it?

Function: Learning and memory
Disease: Alzheimer's disease

53

Disruption of Acetylcholine functioning will result in?

• Curare

54

• What does Curare do?

Blocks Ach receptors

55

If Curare blocks your Ach receptors, what will the result be?

Paralysis

56

Disruption of Acetylcholine functioning is similar to exposure to ______
_______And __________ __________ _________?

• Nerve gases black widow spider venom

57

True or false: • Cigarettes- nicotine works on Ach receptors?

True

58

True or false: nicotine works on Ach receptors and can artificially stimulate skeletal muscles ?

True

59

What disease results in Deterioration of memory, reasoning, and language skills?

Alzheimer's disease

60

What neurotransmitter is Involved in sleep?

Serotonin

61

What neurotransmitter is Involved with depression?

Serotonin

62

Fact or fiction:
• -Prozac works by keeping serotonin in the synapse longer , giving it more time to exert an effect

Fact

63

What neurotransmitter is associated with
• Arousal
• "Fight or flight " response
• Depression or stress?

Norepinephrine

64

What neurotransmitter is Involved in movement, attention, and learning similar to Ach But different because it has a pleasure component ?

Dopamine

65

A Dopamine imbalance is Also involved in what disease ?

Schizophrenia

66

Loss of dopamine-producing neurons is the cause of what disease in which Michael J. Fox and Muhammad Ali are victims?

Parkinson's disease

67

Pleasure component to pain induced state runners high are associated with which neurostransmitter?

Endorphins

68

What neurotransmitter responsibility is to?
• Control pain and pleasure
• Released in response to pain

Endorphins

69

• Morphine and _________ work on endorphin _________ ; Involved in healing effects of acupuncture

codeine receptors

70

What is a feeling of pleasure after a long run due to heavy endorphins released?

Runners high

71

What neurotransmitter is associated with Inhibition of brain activity?

GABA ( gamma -amino butryic acid)

72

What neurotransmitter is Implicated in anxiety disorders (figure 2.1**)?

GABA ( gamma -amino butryic acid)

73

What neurotransmitter Lowers the possibility of keeping other neurons from firing…slowing the brain down ?

GABA ( gamma -amino butryic acid)

74

• Prozac inhibits the reuptake of _________,increasing the availability of _________ in the brain?

serotonin, serotonin

75

• Cocaine produces exhilarating rush by interfering with the reuptake of __________( gives you Fake confidence)?

dopamine

76

• Nicotine works as a stimulant, it is chemically similar to ___________ and can Occupy _______ Receptor sites stimulating skeletal muscles and causing the heart to beat more rapidly

acetylcholine. ACh

77

Neurotransmitter that causes muscle conctions and is involved in learning and memory?

Acetylcholine (uh-seet-ull-KO-leen)

78

Neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of bodily movement, thought processes, and rewarding sensations?

Dopamine

79

Neurotransmitter involved in sensory perceptions, sleep, and emotions?

Serotonin

80

Neurotransmitter involved in learning, memory, and regulation of sleep; also a hormone manufactured by adrenal glands?

Norepinephrine (nor-ep-in-EF-rin)

81

What's the primary role and associated disorder with Acetylcholine?

Primary Roles Associated Disorder
learning, memory Alzheimer's disease
Muscle contractions

82

What's the primary role and associated disorder with Dopamine?

Primary Roles Associated Disorder
Movement Parkinson's Disease
Thought process Schizophrenia
Rewarding sensations Drug addition

83

What's the primary role and associated disorder with Serotonin?

Primary Roles Associated Disorder
Emotional states Depression
Sleep
Sensory program

84

What's the primary role and associated disorder with
Norepinephrine?

Primary Roles Associated Disorder
Physical arousal Depression, stress
Learning, memory
regulation of sleep

85

What's the primary role and associated disorder with GABA?

Primary Roles Associated Disorder
Inhibition of brain activity Anxiety Disorders

86

What's the primary role and associated disorder with Endorphins?

Primary Roles Associated Disorder
Pain perception Opiate disorders
Positive emotions

87

Which neurotransmitter is found within all motor neurons?

Acetylcholine

88

Neurotransmitters that usually communicates an inhibitory message?

GABA (gamma-amino-butyric-acid)

89

Neurotransmitters that regulate pain perceptions?

Endorphins

90

The primary internal communication network of the body; divided into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system?

Nervous system

91

The nervous system consists of organized communication networks of up to ______ trillion neurons?

One trillion

92

In figure 2.8 page 55 the central nervous system(brain and spinal cord ) was what color?

Blue

93

In figure 2.8 page 55 the peripheral nervous system(everything else that looked liked veins ) was what color?

Yellow

94

Division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord?

Central nervous system (CNS)

95

Division of the nervous system that includes all the nerves lying outside the central nervous system?

Peripheral nervous system

96

What does the word peripheral mean?

lying at the outer edges

97

The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system are subdivisions of what nervous system?

Peripheral nervous system

98

somatic nervous system comes from the Greek word soma meaning?

Body

99

Subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that communicates sensory information to the central nervous system and carries motor messages from the central nervous system to the muscles?

Somatic nervous system

100

Subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions?

autonomic nervous system

101

The word autonomic means?

self-governing

102

Branch of the autonomic nervous system that produces rapid physical arousal in response to perceived emergencies or threats?

Sympathetic Nervous system
(fight or flight yellow and black snake)

103

What are the two branches of the Autonomic nervous system?

sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

104

What is know as the body's emergency system?

Sympathetic Nervous system

105

Branch of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal bodily functions and conserves the bodies physical resources?

parasympathetic nervous system

106

Figure 2.11 page 60 upper left hand corner
boxes from central nervous system draw and label

DO IT NOW!!!!

107

what System of glands, located throughout the body, that secrete hormones into the blood stream?

Endocrine system

108

Chemical messengers secreted into the blood stream primarily by endocrine glands?

Hormones

109

Endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain that secrets hormones that affect the function of other glands as well as hormones that act directly on physical processes?

Pituitary gland

110

What Gland produces melatonin, which helps regulate sleep?

Pineal

111

What controls the pituitary gland, and links the nervous system and the endocrine system?

Hypothalamus

112

• This system is made up of glands located throughout the body?

The endocrine system

113

• Endocrine glands communicate information from one part of the body to another by secreting messenger chemicals called ?

hormones

114

Hormones are circulated throughout the ?

Bloodstream

115

True or false:
• Communicate on in the endocrine system takes place much more slowly?

True

116

What are the four lobes of the cortex in the human brain?

Frontal
Parietal
Occipital
Temporal

117

What lobe is for Thinking?

Frontal Lobe

118

What lobe is sensation?

Parietal Lobe

119

What lobe is a big player for our vision?

Occipital Lobe(in back)

120

What lobe is associated with hearing?

Temporal Lobe

121

All of our rational thinking, rational behavior, and planning comes from which lobe?

Frontal lobe

122

Drugs and drinking slow down firing in what lobe
?

Frontal lobe

123

Example: playing golf, get a PAR put and so happy you give your friend a bro-mance is an example of sensation connected to which lobe?

Parietal

(PARietal)

124

What lobe is located in the back of the head?

Occipital Lobe

125

What lobe is associated with hering and is on the side of the head near the temple?

Temporal Lobe

126

The Amygdaloid and Hippocampus are part of the ?

Limbic system

127

Name the 4 parts of the limbic system?

Thalmus
Hypothalmus
Amygdaloid
Hippocampus

128

The Amygdaloid and hippocampus are part of the ?

Limbic system

129

NAme the 4 parts of the limbic system

Thalmus
Hypothalmus

130

What part of the Limbic system is responsible for forming new memories?

Hippocampus

131

This part of the Limbic system links the endocrine system to the brain?

Hypothalamus

132

the Hypothalamus nuclei contains behaviors that affect?

sexual behavior
hunger thirst
sleep
circadian rhythms
water and salt balance
circadian rhythms
roles in hormone secretion

133

What part of the limbic system is associated with emotions?

Amygdala

134

the Amygdala is involved in a variety or _____ _____ patterns(emotional Amy), including fear, anger and disgust?

emotional responses

135

Broca's area, and Wernike's area play roles in ?

Language of the brain

136

Decreases the that the post synaptic neuron will activate?

Inhibitory Messages

137

Aphasia,

Language of the brain

138

Partial or complete inability to articulate ideas or understand language?

Aphasia

139

Broca's area plays role in _____ production?

Speech

140

Wernike's area play roles in ________ and ______ speech?

understanding and meaningful speech

141

thick band of axons that connect the two cerebral hemispheres pg77

Corpus callosum-

142

a phenomenon in which brain functions are shifted from one side to the other

• Functional plasticity-

143

a phenomenon in which Brian structures physically change in response to environmental influences

• Structural plasticity-

144

the development of new neurons

• Neurogenesis-