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Flashcards in PSY - Research Methods Deck (51):
1

What is an experiment characterised by?

Manipulate participant's experiences, whether causes predetermined response

2

What is a survey characterised by?

Ask re. thoughts, feelings and behaviours, questionnaire or interview

3

What do all research methods have?

Scientific principles/rules
Use of a sample

4

What are the types of research methods?

Experiment, Observational Study, Case Study, Survey, Interview, Rating Scales, Longitudinal Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, Correlational Studies, Self-Reports, Questionnaires, Twin Studies, Adoption Studies

5

What are the three categories of research methods?

Determined by whether involve experiment &/or type of data

Experimental
Descriptive
Correlational

6

What is characteristic of experimental research?

If one variable > change in another variable
IV / DV / EV
Settings
Groups

7

What is an independent variable?

What is manipulated (cause)

8

What is the dependent variable?

Measure effect of IV

9

What are the two types of experimental settings?

Laboratory (setting/experiment)
Field (setting/experiment)

10

What are extraneous variables?

Those other than the IV that > change in DV

11

What are the two groups in experiments?

Experimental (_ condition, IV = present)
Control(_ condition, IV = absent)

12

What are the advantages of experiments?

- IV is changeable
- B/c it is controlled setting, can re-test
- Reporting > replication

13

What is a sample?

Subsection of participants from population

14

What is the population?

Entire group of research interest

15

What is sampling?

Process selecting sample

If scientific > generalise to population

16

What is a representative sample?

Same as population in personal characteristics

17

What is random sampling?

Every member in population has equal chance of being selected for sample, if not equal = biased

Eg. List ('Sampling frame')

18

What is stratified sampling?

Divide population into strata (based on personal characteristics)
Select from strata in population's ratios

19

What is random-stratified sampling?

Random sampling per stratum

20

What is random allocation/assignment?

Equal chance of being put into experimental or control groups

21

What is characteristic of descriptive research?

Describe thoughts, feelings, & behaviour as they occur in the time and place

22

What are case studies?

In-depth, study small behaviour or event

Called case history/clinical observation (for treatment)

23

What are the advantages of case studies?

- actual (no manipulation)
- how others think/feel/behave
- source of hypotheses to do other research on

24

What are observations and observational studies?

Observation: means by which to study phenomena in nature
Observational studies: collect data by watching & recording behaviour

25

What are the two types of observational studies?

1. Naturalistic: unnoticed
2. Participant: involved, not recognised as actual experimenter

26

What are the advantages and disadvantages of observational studies?

- real
- co-operation not needed

27

What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative data?

QUAL: descriptions, words, images, texts, of characteristics of behaviour and mental processes, can be in Quan form

QUAN: amount of what is studied, test data, easy to interpret

28

What is qualitative and quantitative research?

QUAL research = qual data etc...
Research can produce both

29

What are the three steps regarding research data and statistics?

1. Summarise and describe
2. Interpret
3. Explain

30

What are the two types of statistics?

1. Descriptive (%, averages, prepare tables...) - summarise and describe phase
2. Inferential (probability of results due to IV) interpret phase

31

What are characteristics of tables and graphs?

Numbered, titled, headers and sub headers / labels of axes or columns and rows

32

What is a bar graph?

Bar: compare categories, separate bars



33

What document outlined research ethics?

(2007) National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research" by NHMRC, Australian Research Council, Australian Vice-Chancellors Committee

34

What are the experimenter's rights and responsibilities?

Balance risks and gains
Participant's rights are main concern

35

What are the 6 participant rights?

1. Confidentiality: any info r.e. involvement needs written consent
2. Voluntary Participation: no neg consequences if decline, no pressure
3. Withdrawal Rights: inform of procedure, free to withdraw self or results
4. Informed Consent: procedures, risks, demands and disadvantages, info collection/storage/access, confidentiality, withdrawal rights, outcomes, how made public
5. Deception: no distress, debrief required
6. Debriefing: understand, end, services eg. counselling

36

What percentage of research has non-human participants?

~10%

37

What animals are commonly used in research?

5% are primates
Mice, rats, hamsters, pigeons

38

What are the reasons for using animals in research?

1. Interest in animal behaviour (ethology)
2. Psych/physical harm to humans / people unavailable
3. Biology = same > good starting point
4. Practical (rats old age = 2 years) or breed faster (rats = 3 mths) lab confinement / captivity
5. Behaviour control (eg in a cage)
6. Large numbers with similar genetic makeup
7. Removes participant expectations

39

What are the limits and restrictions on animal testing in research?

- Hard to generalise
- Dominates / sense of superiority
- Should respect animal kingdom
- NHMRC "Guidelines to Promote the Wellbeing of Animals used for Scientific Purposes (2008)

40

What are the steps in psychological research?

1. Identify Research Problem (literature search)
2. Construct Research Hypothesis (testable, r.e relationship between 2 or more events, guess related to results, statement, clear, 1 sentence
3. Design Method (considered w/ hypothesis, consider sample)
4. Collect Data ('raw data', observations, questionnaires, interviews)
5. Analyse Data (logical, support hypothesis?)
6. Interpret Data (conclusions: 1-hypothesis supported? 2-generalisation, if yes then test has external validity)
7. Report Research Findings (conference, journal, background info/method/findings/application/problems encountered/references

41

What are the characteristics of human research ethics committees?

Review proposals
1. Design / conduct ethically
2. Researcher = experienced
3. Monitor research ongoing
4. Complaints
5. Researcher accountability

Ratios: 2 w/ relevant research exp, lawyer, pastoral carer, counsellor, 2 from public, 1/3 from outside company, at least 8

42

What are the two types of extraneous variables?

Participant
Experimenter

43

What are uncontrolled extraneous variables called?

Confounding

44

What are the disadvantages of experimental research?

- Field = uncontrollable
- Lab = too artificial
- Lab can't measure emotions/social issues

45

What are the disadvantages of case studies?

- can't test hypotheses unless multiple case studies
- sample size is too small
- hard to generalise
- prone to bias (participant and experimenter)

46

What are the disadvantages of observational studies?

- may not see
- may dismiss
- requires patience
- can't do in controlled lab setting
- hard to find cause
- observer bias

47

Why is describing research as qualitative or quantitative misleading?

Suggests research methods ONLY suitable for collecting one type or can ONLY produce on type

48

What is a histogram?

Histograms: bars touch, frequency, x-axis = continuous info

49

What is a pie graph?

Pie: proportions of values of 100%

50

What is a line graph?

Line: relationship between 2 variables

51

What is a frequency polygon?

Frequency Polygon: frequency, line graph, MUST zero both x-sides