Flashcards in PSY - Research Methods Deck (51):
What is an experiment characterised by?
Manipulate participant's experiences, whether causes predetermined response
What is a survey characterised by?
Ask re. thoughts, feelings and behaviours, questionnaire or interview
What do all research methods have?
Use of a sample
What are the types of research methods?
Experiment, Observational Study, Case Study, Survey, Interview, Rating Scales, Longitudinal Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, Correlational Studies, Self-Reports, Questionnaires, Twin Studies, Adoption Studies
What are the three categories of research methods?
Determined by whether involve experiment &/or type of data
What is characteristic of experimental research?
If one variable > change in another variable
IV / DV / EV
What is an independent variable?
What is manipulated (cause)
What is the dependent variable?
Measure effect of IV
What are the two types of experimental settings?
What are extraneous variables?
Those other than the IV that > change in DV
What are the two groups in experiments?
Experimental (_ condition, IV = present)
Control(_ condition, IV = absent)
What are the advantages of experiments?
- IV is changeable
- B/c it is controlled setting, can re-test
- Reporting > replication
What is a sample?
Subsection of participants from population
What is the population?
Entire group of research interest
What is sampling?
Process selecting sample
If scientific > generalise to population
What is a representative sample?
Same as population in personal characteristics
What is random sampling?
Every member in population has equal chance of being selected for sample, if not equal = biased
Eg. List ('Sampling frame')
What is stratified sampling?
Divide population into strata (based on personal characteristics)
Select from strata in population's ratios
What is random-stratified sampling?
Random sampling per stratum
What is random allocation/assignment?
Equal chance of being put into experimental or control groups
What is characteristic of descriptive research?
Describe thoughts, feelings, & behaviour as they occur in the time and place
What are case studies?
In-depth, study small behaviour or event
Called case history/clinical observation (for treatment)
What are the advantages of case studies?
- actual (no manipulation)
- how others think/feel/behave
- source of hypotheses to do other research on
What are observations and observational studies?
Observation: means by which to study phenomena in nature
Observational studies: collect data by watching & recording behaviour
What are the two types of observational studies?
1. Naturalistic: unnoticed
2. Participant: involved, not recognised as actual experimenter
What are the advantages and disadvantages of observational studies?
- co-operation not needed
What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative data?
QUAL: descriptions, words, images, texts, of characteristics of behaviour and mental processes, can be in Quan form
QUAN: amount of what is studied, test data, easy to interpret
What is qualitative and quantitative research?
QUAL research = qual data etc...
Research can produce both
What are the three steps regarding research data and statistics?
1. Summarise and describe
What are the two types of statistics?
1. Descriptive (%, averages, prepare tables...) - summarise and describe phase
2. Inferential (probability of results due to IV) interpret phase
What are characteristics of tables and graphs?
Numbered, titled, headers and sub headers / labels of axes or columns and rows
What is a bar graph?
Bar: compare categories, separate bars
What document outlined research ethics?
(2007) National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research" by NHMRC, Australian Research Council, Australian Vice-Chancellors Committee
What are the experimenter's rights and responsibilities?
Balance risks and gains
Participant's rights are main concern
What are the 6 participant rights?
1. Confidentiality: any info r.e. involvement needs written consent
2. Voluntary Participation: no neg consequences if decline, no pressure
3. Withdrawal Rights: inform of procedure, free to withdraw self or results
4. Informed Consent: procedures, risks, demands and disadvantages, info collection/storage/access, confidentiality, withdrawal rights, outcomes, how made public
5. Deception: no distress, debrief required
6. Debriefing: understand, end, services eg. counselling
What percentage of research has non-human participants?
What animals are commonly used in research?
5% are primates
Mice, rats, hamsters, pigeons
What are the reasons for using animals in research?
1. Interest in animal behaviour (ethology)
2. Psych/physical harm to humans / people unavailable
3. Biology = same > good starting point
4. Practical (rats old age = 2 years) or breed faster (rats = 3 mths) lab confinement / captivity
5. Behaviour control (eg in a cage)
6. Large numbers with similar genetic makeup
7. Removes participant expectations
What are the limits and restrictions on animal testing in research?
- Hard to generalise
- Dominates / sense of superiority
- Should respect animal kingdom
- NHMRC "Guidelines to Promote the Wellbeing of Animals used for Scientific Purposes (2008)
What are the steps in psychological research?
1. Identify Research Problem (literature search)
2. Construct Research Hypothesis (testable, r.e relationship between 2 or more events, guess related to results, statement, clear, 1 sentence
3. Design Method (considered w/ hypothesis, consider sample)
4. Collect Data ('raw data', observations, questionnaires, interviews)
5. Analyse Data (logical, support hypothesis?)
6. Interpret Data (conclusions: 1-hypothesis supported? 2-generalisation, if yes then test has external validity)
7. Report Research Findings (conference, journal, background info/method/findings/application/problems encountered/references
What are the characteristics of human research ethics committees?
1. Design / conduct ethically
2. Researcher = experienced
3. Monitor research ongoing
5. Researcher accountability
Ratios: 2 w/ relevant research exp, lawyer, pastoral carer, counsellor, 2 from public, 1/3 from outside company, at least 8
What are the two types of extraneous variables?
What are uncontrolled extraneous variables called?
What are the disadvantages of experimental research?
- Field = uncontrollable
- Lab = too artificial
- Lab can't measure emotions/social issues
What are the disadvantages of case studies?
- can't test hypotheses unless multiple case studies
- sample size is too small
- hard to generalise
- prone to bias (participant and experimenter)
What are the disadvantages of observational studies?
- may not see
- may dismiss
- requires patience
- can't do in controlled lab setting
- hard to find cause
- observer bias
Why is describing research as qualitative or quantitative misleading?
Suggests research methods ONLY suitable for collecting one type or can ONLY produce on type
What is a histogram?
Histograms: bars touch, frequency, x-axis = continuous info
What is a pie graph?
Pie: proportions of values of 100%
What is a line graph?
Line: relationship between 2 variables