Flashcards in PSY - Introduction to Psychology Deck (30):
Any observable action made by a living person
Define mental processes.
Individual's thoughts and feelings that are personal and cannot be directly observed
What are the links between behaviour and mental processes?
Mental processes often interpreted by observing behaviour
Mental processes may influence other mental processes and/or behaviours (T>F>B)
How does a psychologist differ from a psychiatrist?
6 years study 13 years study
Not trained to perform med proced Able to perform med proced
Can't prescribe medications Can prescribe medications
Cannot hospitalise the involuntary Can hospitalise the involuntary
What ins the difference between basic and applied psychology?
Basic: knowledge for its own sake, aka 'pure'
Applied: study to apply in practical and relevant way
What is clinical psychology?
Clinical (asses diagnose and treat mental issues)
The scientific study of behaviour and mental processes in humans
Aims are to describe, predict, control, and explain thoughts, feelings, and behaviours
What does the biological perspective assume?
That all T/F/B involve underlying bodily activities and processes
How has the role of neurotransmitters contributed to developments in understanding the biological perspective?
Chemicals which travel between neurons in nervous system, found there are 100s of NTs, eg Dopamine was found to be involved w/ complex bodily movements and emotional responses (esp. pleasure) and is in meds to treat Parkinson's, eg Seratonin is involved w/ onset of sleep, and moods, and is in meds to treat depression
How has the role of genes contributed to developments in understanding the biological perspective?
2003 Human Genome project, study link b/w genes and how we T/F/B, eg memory by breeding mice w/ new genes or w/out specific gene, determine which has memory good or bad, and so > identify genes assoc w/ memory > therapies involving genetic manipulation
How has the role of neuroimaging contributed to developments in understanding the biological perspective?
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scanners in late 1980s enabled scientists to conclude that certain areas of brain are active in certain processes, most active = red/yellow, least = blue, study brain areas involved w/ perception/both types of memory/conscious experience/effects of meds/brain changes assoc w/disease or illnesses
What does the behavioural perspective assume / study / combine with?
Emphasise importance of studying environmental influences on behaviour
Assumes that all behaviour can be explained in terms of learning processes
Modern day: couple w/ cognition > social-learning or social-cognitive perspective
What is operant conditioning?
System whereby rewards and punishments influence behaviour
Describe Skinner's typical experiments.
Study bar or lever pressing among rats and pecking by pigeons > Skinner box > Hungry animal > Accidentally press bar that would release a food pellet > Rate of bar pressing dramatically increase > evidence of positive reinforcement (consequences determine frequency of behaviour repetition)
Skinner box w/ wire grid on floor through which mild electric current can pass > when rat presses bar, shock is removed > negative reinforcement (removal of something undesirable)
Reinforcement increased likelihood, punishment decreased likelihood (shock after pressing bar for food)
What is behaviour therapy?
Using learning principles to eliminate unwanted behaviour and enact positive behavioural changes
How does the cognitive perspective explain psychology? What does it assume?
Assoc w/ mental processes (esp to do w/ thinking)
How we acquire, process, remember, and use info
Assumes: internal mental processes are vital in own right and important influences on observable behaviour
What is the information processing approach to cognitive psychology?
Compare human brain to computer
Receive > process > store > retrieve info
Dat inputs from environment > converted into form brain can handle > stored so easily retrievable > search for info and use appropriate mental ops to get solution or output
Also explains mental processes accompanying behaviour
How does the connectionist approach explain cognitive psychology?
Different parts are interconnected by neuron networks and are more or less active at the same time when processing info
Describes info being distributed throughout entire networks w/in brain rather than being located in one specific area
Eg semantic network theory: in long term memory, related info is clustered together and are spread throughout interconnected network, closer related bits of info > closer in network > whole area searched for one specific piece of info incl related bits
What is clinical neuropsychology?
Clinical Neuro (assess changes in function from brain damage/irregularities, and help manage brain damage patients)
What is community psychology?
Community (community health and welfare, w/ local govt or orgs)
What is counselling psychology?
Counselling (aid w/ personal and relationship issues that affect mental wellbeing)
What is educational and developmental psychology?
Educational and Developmental (learning and ways behaviour and mental processes change over lifespan
What is forensic psychology?
Forensic (legal and criminal justice system, criminal minds, rehab, court advice as expert, risk assessment for prisoners)
What is health psychology?
Health (understanding psych factors related to physical health and illness, maintain good health behaviour, treat psych based illness, analysis of healthcare system)
What is organisational psychology?
Organisational (organisations to become more efficient while maintaining wellbeing of employees)
What is sport and exercise psychology?
Sport and Exercise (help elite-level, pro, and amateur athletes ache e peak performance and manage stress and life adjustment
What is biological psychology?
Biological (focuses on bodily structures assoc with behaviour and mental processes, brain/nervous and endocrine and immune systems and genetics)
What is cognitive psychology?
Cognitive (how people acquire, process, remember, and use info)
What is personality psychology?
Personality (studies ppls ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving)