PSY220 - 1. Social Facilitation/Social loafing/Group performance + decisions Conformity & obedience Flashcards Preview

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Social psychology

scientific study of reciprocal influence of indiv + social environment
cycle of influence
abstract theory + concrete practice
Keen on solving real world problems (racism)
Mixture of basic + applied research

1

Social psychology

Beliefs, Feelings, Attitudes, Emotions→ Behaviour → Other People(and their thoughts, feeling, attitudes + behavior)
Social science

2

Social psychology

traffic in probabilities, likelihood + correlations, rather than absolute laws
Despite enormous variability of behaviour, possible to extract some basic patterns of human behaviour

3

Intrinsic motivation

perform better rather than when rewarded – statistically likely, better than chance
Could this pattern have happened by chance?
Phenonmenon doesn’t happen to all people all the time

4

Intuitions

important to verify common sense + folk intuition with data based objective
must be tested against empirical data
sometimes two opposing clichés may seem equally intuitive, counter intuitive
each one makes sense: which intuition makes sense with the data

5

SOCIAL FACILITATION

Triplett (1897): Got 40 children to wind up fishing reels, alone/side-by-side
Dv: inches of line – objective variable
Side by side condition yielded more line
Efforts to replicate results were mixed
Some results were the opposite

6

SOCIAL FACILITATION: Zajonc

presence of others increases arousal (physiologically measurable, i.e. heart-rate, sweating palms, etc.).

7

SOCIAL FACILITATION: Zajonc

Arousal energizes you + facilitates dominant response (comes most quickly + easily). Arousal activates thoughts + motor responses that are the most practiced (accessible).

8

SOCIAL FACILITATION: Zajonc

On a well-learned task (reciting the alphabet/your birthday), the dominant response is the correct response.
On a poorly-learned task (naming state capitols/your mother-in-law’s birthday), the dominant response is likely to be incorrect.

9

SOCIAL FACILITATION

an audience should improve your performance on tasks easy for you and hamper your performance on tasks more difficult.

10

SOCIAL FACILITATION THEORIES:

Zajonc – mere presence: Presence of others arousing + enhances dominant responses
social, mere presence
diff theories work better in diff conditions. Current, ongoing work looks at isolating these conditions.

11

THE “COCKROACH” EXPERIMENT

The easy maze vs. The “hard” maze
Varied the walls of the maze
Glass walls – cockroaches watching or not
Facilitation is fundamental to all species
Cockroach arousal systems are diff
Data consistent with this idea

12

SOCIAL FACILITATION THEORIES: Evaluation apprehension

Cotrell: has to be a threat of error
Audience but they were blindfolded: effect was reduced but not fully eliminated
Concern for how others evaluating us
perform best when collector is slightly superior

13

SOCIAL FACILITATION THEORIES: Evaluation apprehension

Arousal lessons when high status group is diluted by adding people opinions don’t matter to us
People who worry most about other evaluations are the ones most affected by presence
facilitation effects Greatest when others unfamiliar + hard to keep an eye on
social, not mere presence

14

SOCIAL FACILITATION THEORIES: distraction-conflict model

Conflict between paying attention to others and paying attention to the task

15

SOCIAL FACILITATION THEORIES: distraction-conflict model

Baron: distraction removes attention on task at hand – increases arousal,
can be distracted by other distractions
Nonsocial distractions can also facilitate easy tasks + impair difficult tasks
non social/mere presence

16

SOCIAL LOAFING

presence of others cause us to relax When efforts are pooled + performance of any one individual is difficult or impossible for observers to determine.
Anonymity is a gateway to loafing

17

Ringelmann – french
Compared agricultural machines + farmers in strength in pulling rope

whole less than sum of the parts
Other ppl should increase performance
(a)groups less coordinated (more interference – nothing to do with individual effort)
tug of war is clumsy/disorganized
(b) people try less hard in groups

18

SOCIAL LOAFING

tendency for ppl to exert less effort when pull their efforts toward common goal than when individually accountable
Free riders: benefit from group but give little in return

19

SOCIAL LOAFING

being observed increases evaluation concerns, social facilitation occurs
being in a crowd decreases evaluation concerns, social loafing occurs
exert more effort when outputs individually identifiable

20

Latane:

either alone/part of team, but their teammates in separate rooms.
task: To scream and yell and make as much noise as possible! (Dependent variable: decibel level)

21

Latane:

Alone – (supposedly) 1 other person- 82% on average 5 other people- 74%
lose about quarter of yelling power when they think there are 5 other ppl
alone better at generating ideas
robust across cultures
more judicious about expending efforts + resources

22

What reduces loafing?

1.identifiability – degree to which output is unidentifiable
2.importance of task – if not identifiable, still less when it’s a task ppl care about
3.own efforts necessary for successful outcome – believe if they will fail without their effort

23

What reduces loafing?

4.threat of punishment for poor performance – requires identifiable except group punishment
5.small group
6.group cohesiveness – rather than doing same task, division of labour
Latane talked about it as a negative

24

Social loafing in every day life

Those who see themselves as less capable strive to keep up with the rest of the group

25

Group size

big crowd/cover of night-lose Inhibition
attribute behavior to situation, everyone is doing it, they don’t see it as their own choice

26

Physical anonymity

Anonymity can make someone less self-conscious and more responsive to cues presented
• anonymity can lead to affection as well as violence

27

Arousing and distracting activities

Self reinforcing pleasure in doing an impulsive act while observing others doing it also
enjoy intense positive feelings and feel close to others

28

Diminished self-awareness

self-aware exhibit greater consistency between words and their deeds
Mirrors and cameras, small towns, bright lights, name tags, undistracted quiet, individual clothes

29

Karau & Williams-collective effort model

Big tradeoff: Effort is fatiguing
seek to optimize ratio between input + groups output – seek optimal balance
Adaptive mechanism: if I tried 110%, I would burn out
Make choices when to go big or hold out