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Flashcards in PSYC365CH30and1 Deck (66):
1

adenine

One of the four nucleotides the comprise DNA

2

alleles

Alternate forms of a gene that may exist at the same site on the chromosome

3

amino acids

building block of protein needed for normal growth

4

anticipation

and term used in genetics to denote an expansion in Triplet repeats from one generation to the next leading to a more severe manifestation of the disease

5

aorta

The major artery of the body

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autosomal dominant

Mendelian inheritance pattern in which a single copy of a gene leads to expression of the trait

7

autosomal recessive

Mendelian inheritance pattern in which to carry her parents have a 25% chance of passing the trait to each child

8

autosomes

The first 22 pairs of chromosomes All chromosomes are all autosomes except for the two sex chromosomes

9

chromosomes

threadlike strands of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of a cell that carry the genes transmitting hereditary information

10

coarctation

A congenital narrowing such as of a blood vessel most commonly of the aorta

11

codons

triplets of nucleotides that form of the DNA code for specific amino acids

12

concusions

a clinical syndrome caused by a blow to the head characterized by transient loss of consciousness

13

congenital

originating prior to birth

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contiguous gene syndromes

a genetic syndrome resulting from defects in a number of adjacent genes

15

contusions

Structural damage limited to the surface layer of the brain caused by a blow to the head

16

cytoplasm

The contents of the cell outside the Nucleus

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cytosine

One of the four nucleotides that comprise DNA

18

developmental disabilities

a group of chronic conditions that are attributable to an impairment in physical cognitive speech or languagePsychological or self care areas and that are manifested during the developmental Younger tha 21 years of age

19

diffuse axonal injuries DAIs

diffuse injuries to nerve cells components usually resulting from sharing forces

20

DNA

the fundamental component of living tissues it contains an organisms genetic code

21

dominant

a trait that only requires one copy of a gene to be expressed phenotypically

22

double helix

the coiled structure of DNA

23

epicanthal folds

Crescent shaped fold of skin on either side of the nose commonly associated with down syndrome

24

epidural hematomas

localized collection of clotted blood line between the skull and the outer membrane of the brain resulting from the hemorrhage of a blood vessel resting in the dura

25

estrogen

female sex hormone

26

FISH flourescent in situ hybridization

a technique to identify small chromosomal defects such as found in Prader Willi syndrome

27

frame shift

A type of gene mutation in which the insertion or deletion of a single nucleotide leads to the misreading of all subsequent codons

28

genes

a unit of genetic material that encodes a single protein

29

genome

the complete set of hereditary factors in an organism

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genomic imprinting

a condition manifested differently depending on whether the trait is inherited from the mother or father

31

genotypes

the genetic composition of an individual

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germ cells

the cells involved in reproduction

33

golgi appratus

that intracellular organelle that packages proteins in a form that can be released through the cell membrane and carry throughout the body

34

guanine

one of the four nucleotides that comprise DNA

35

heterozygous

carrying genes to similar for one trait

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homozygous

carrying identical genes for any given trait

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hybrid

offspring of parents of dissimilar species

38

Impact

in reference to traumatic head injury the forcible striking of the head against an object

39

inborn error of metabolism phenylketonuria

inherited enzyme deficiency leading to the disruption of normal body metabolism

40

Inertial

pertaining to inertia which is a tendency to keep moving in the same direction as the force that produced a movement

41

intellectual disability

significantly sub average general intellectual functioning accompanied by significant limitations in adaptive functioning

42

meiosis

reductive cell division occurring only in eggs and sperm in which the daughter cells receive half the number of chromosomes of the parent cells

43

mendelian traits

dominant and recessive traits inherited according to the genetic principles put forward by Gregor Mandel

44

messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA

RNA involved in the translation of genetic information

45

microdeletion

in microscopic deletion in chromosomes associated with a contiguous gene syndrome

46

microdeletion syndromes

genetic disorders caused by mutations in a small number of contiguous genes

47

missense mutation

gene error resulting from the replacement of a single nucleic acid for another resulting in a misreading of the DNA code

48

mitosis

cell division in which two daughter cells of identical chromosomal composition to the parent cells are formed

49

monosomy

chromosome disorder in which one chromosome is absent

50

mosaicism

The presence of two genetically distinct types of cells in one individual

51

nondisjunction

failure of a pair of chromosomes to separate during mitosis or meiosis since resulting in an unequal number of chromosomes in the daughter cells

52

nonsense mutation

gene defect in which a single base pair substitution results in the premature termination of a message and the resultant production of an incomplete and inactive protein

53

nucleotide bases

The nucleic Acids that form DNA adenine guanine cytosine and thymine

54

phenotype

the physical appearance of a genetic trait

55

phenylalanine

and amino acid the evaluation of which causes phenylketonuria PKU

56

recessive

pertaining to trait that expressed only if the child inherits two copies of the gene

57

ribosome

intracellular structure concerned with protein synthesis

58

sex chromosomes

The X and Y chromosomes that determine gender

59

single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs

DNA sequence variations

60

spermatocytes

Sperm

61

thymine

one of the four nucleotides that comprise DNA

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transcription

the process in which mRNA is formed from a DNA template

63

translation

the process in which an amino acid sequence is assembled according to the pattern specified by mRNA

64

translocaiton

The transfer of a fragment of one chromosome to another chromosome

65

triplet repeat expansion

abnormal number of copies of identical triplet nucleotide

66

trisomy

A condition in which there are three copies of one chromosome rather than two