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Flashcards in Psych Chapter 1 Deck (42):

1-2 Critical thinking

Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.


1-1 Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
(Believing learned truths to be common sense automatically)


1-1 Perceiving order in random events

The tendency to perceive patterns and correlations where there are none.


1-1 Overconfidence

Believing in ones conclusion despite evidence to the contrary.


1-3 Operational definition

A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as “what an intelligence test measures.”


1-3 Theory

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.


1-3 A good theory does...

1) organizes a range of self - reports and observations
2) implies predictions that anyone can use to check the theory or to derive practical applications


1-3 Hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory.


1-3 Replication

Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.


1-3 Experimental methods for testing out theories

Manipulating factors to discover their effects


1-4 Case study

An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.


1-3 Descriptive methods for testing out theories

Describing behaviours, often through case studies, surveys, or naturalistic observations


1-3 Correlational Methods for testing out theories

Associating different factors.


1-4 Wording effect

When the wording of a question influences the outcome in a survey


1-4 Population

All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.


1-4 Anecdotal evidence

Dramatic single stories which tend to result in over generalizations.


1-4 Surveys and Interviews

Asking people questions
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.


1-4 Naturalistic Observation

Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
Describes behaviour, does not explain it.


1-5 Correlation

A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.


1-5 Causation

What causes what.


1-5 Correlation coefficient

A statistical index of the relationship between two things (from −1 to +1).
+1 is strong correlation
0 is weak correlation
-1 is strong correlation


1-4 Random Sample

A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.


1-5 Scatter plot

A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation).


1-6 Control group

in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.


1-6 Placebo Effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.


1-6 random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.


1-6 experimental group

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.


1-6 Dependent Variable

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.


1-6 Independent Variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.


1-6 Double-blind

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug - evaluation studies.


1-7 Median

the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.


1-7 Mode

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.


1-6 Confounding Variable

a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.


1-7 Mean

the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.


1-8 Standard Deviation

More useful than range for measuring how stats deviate from each other.


1-8 Statistical significance

When observed differences in reliable data is large.


1-8 Normal Curve

Typical bell-shaped distribution; most cases near mean, fewer cases falling near either extreme.


1-8 Range

The difference between the highest and lowest numbers.


1-12 Debriefing

the postexperimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants.


1-8 When is observed difference reliable?

- When using representative samples rather than biased samples
- When the observation uses lesser amounts of variables
- When there are more cases


1-12 Informed Consent

an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.


1-9 Culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.