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Flashcards in Psych - Intro Deck (10):
1

What are psychiatric disorders?

BRAIN DISORDERS

Most psych disorders are DEVELOPMENTAL disorders

Men DO get depressed

Psych disorders are HEREDITARY

Psych disorders are NOT MANIFESTATIONS OF WEAKNESS, nor are they character flaws

2

ADHD as a brain disorder

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a DELAY IN MATURATION

There is a THINNER CORTEX in ADHD

Individuals without ADHD finish cortical development earlier than ADHD

Prefrontal cortex (attention, decision making, impulse control) development is particularly delayed -- in patients without ADHD, the prefrontal cortex develops LATE but it is even further in ADHD - becomes very noticeable, especially as school work becomes more rigorous; have trouble keeping up with peers

3

Psych disorders are DEVELOPMENTAL disorders

Age on onset of most psych disorders COINCIDES WITH BRAIN MATURATION (present in childhood, adolescence or young adulthood)

At age 24-25, the brain is actually still developing!

3 main developmental abormalities of schizophrenics? DEFICIENT MYELINATION, EXCESSIVE EXCITATORY PRUNING (too many strong excitatory synapses), REDUCED INHIBITORY ACTIVITY --> ALL of these take place during the developmental period!!!

4

Definition of mental disorder

Mental disorders are characterized by abnormalities in cognition, emotion, or mood or on the highest integrative aspects of behavior, such as social interactions of planning of future

These are CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT syndromes associated with DISTRESS, DISABILITY or BOTH

Psych disorders are not only disorders that affect MENTAL health - they have adverse effects on PHYSICAL HEALTH as well as on the course of other medical disorders (depressed patients may take longer to recover from heart surgert, etc)

5

As long as the brain has normally developed and is functioning properly...

isolated deviant events (political, religious, sexual), or periods of grief/mourning, or a bad test or bad day or bad month are NOT MENTAL ILLNESSES

There has to be a brain abnormality!

6

What are the burdens of psychiatric disorders measured by?

DALYs -- Disability Adjusted Life Years

Mental illness accounts for the most DALY's of all medical disorders (roughly 30%)

Unipolar Depression and Alcoholism are the most common

Years where disability is mostly seen? 15-44 years old

7

Mortality associated with psychiatric disorders?

Each year, there are an estimated 36,000 suicides, 90% of which occur in individuals that are mentally disturbed

Due to the high rate of suicides, AVERAGE LIFE EXPECTANCY OF PERSONS WHO SUFFER FROM MENTAL DISORDERS = 56 YEARS

8

EPIDEMIOLOGY

The % of people who suffered from a psychiatric disorder IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS = 32.4% (anxiety = 19%, substnace use = 13.4%, mood disorders = 9.7%)

******Those who suffered from a SERIOUS MENTAL DISORDER in the past 12 months = 5% --> 1/20!!! These 5% comprise the main burden of illness*******

17% will suffer from MDD in their LIFETIME

9

Comorbidities

If a patient has one specific psych disorder, they are LIKELY TO HAVE ANOTHER ONE that is commonly associated with it...

Common associations = DEPRESSION and ANXIETY, BPD and SUBSTANCE ABUSE, ANTI-SOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER and SUBSTANCE ABUSE

Likelihood of co-morbidity is linked to the SEVERITY OF THE PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER

Comorbidities are not limited to psych disorders (depression and heart disease, cancer can lead to depression, etc)

10

Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders

Pharmacologic Treatments

Psychotherapies -- includes PSYCHODYNAMIC psychotherapy (explore the impact of childhood experiences on current behaviors) and COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY (focuses on modifying cognitions, assumptions, beliefs, and behaviors, with the aim of influencing disturbed behaviors - basically acknowledges the problem and figures out new ways to cope with it); there is also DIALECTICAL behavioral therapy (CBT that focuses on self inflicted injury behavior); also GROUP therapy


Somatic Treatments --> includes alternative treatments like LIGHT THERAPY, ECT, TRANS-CRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION, VAGAL NERVE STIMULATION and DBS