Flashcards in Psych/Soc Deck (43):
What is shadowing?
Speech shadowing is an experimental technique in which subjects repeat speech immediately after hearing it (usually through earphones)
What is the mean and standard deviation of the Wechsler Scale of Intelligence?
Mean = 100
SD = 15
What is the 68, 95, 99 rule of statistics?
68% of values fall within +/- one standard deviation of the mean. About 95% of the values fall within +/- two standard deviations from the mean. Almost all of the values — about 99.7% — fall within +/- three standard deviations from the mean.
What type of synapses have gap junctions?
Electrical synapses -- no neurotransmitter required
What is the difference between electrical synapses and chemical?
Electrical synapses are connected together through gap junctions (no cleft). They are faster than chemical synapses but they lack gain (the signal is either the same or smaller because it doesn't integrate like chemical). Electrical synapses don't use chemical messengers.
What are examples of agents of socialization?
Popular culture, school, family, religion -- teach the norms and values of society
What is the difference between a proximal stimulus and distal stimulus?
Proximal stimulus is the stimulation that actually occurs when your sensory receptors are activated... the neural activity.
Distal stimulus is the actual stimulus or object in the real world that you end up sensing and then perceiving, which results in the proximal stimulus.
What is the operational span?
The max number of words that can be recalled
What is operational span testing?
Test to see the general capacity of working memory tasks
Does retention function increase or decrease with age?
decrease -- ability to retain info decreases
What is psychophysical discrimination testing?
Investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce and discriminate between the two.
What is methods of limits?
This test our perception of stimuli in relation to their true physical properties.
In the ascending method of limits, some property of the stimulus starts out at a level so low that the stimulus could not be detected, then this level is gradually increased until the participant reports that they are aware of it. The descending is the opposite.
What is partial vs whole report technique?
Partial: When in sensory memory testing they flash a square with 9 numbers total and ask the subject to recall only one row they are able to do it perfectly.
Whole: recall the entire square
What is repression vs suppression?
Repression: unconscious forgetting
Suppression: conscious forgetting
Stages of Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
Pre-conventional: obedience/punishment, self interest
Conventional: law and order, social approval
Post-conventional: universal ethics, morals
What is an operational definition?
Any variable a researcher wants to measure must be operationally defined such that the researcher knows what the variable should look like, how it could be described qualitatively/quantitatively, how it could be measured, etc. And in order to determine these things, conditions must be set so that the variable can actually be observed. You want to know what someone's like when they're motivated, what drives them to do something to get something, you have to take away something they're motivated to get
What is proactive interference vs retroactive?
Proactive: Old info interfering with new info
Retroactive: New info interfering with old info
What is statistical adjustment?
Controlling for variables that could affect the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable of a study. Taking into account confounding variables.
What is the sensitive/critical period?
A point in early development that can have a significant influence on physiological or behavioral functioning in later life.
What is the difference between drive and incentive theory of motivation?
Drive has to do with an internal motive and Incentive has to do with an external motive
What is the push versus pull theory of motivation?
the drive theory pushes in direction based on internal stimuli/tension; incentive theory pulls in direction based on external stimuli
CT vs MRI vs fMRI vs PET vs EEG
EEG: measure electrical activity in the brain
PET: localization of brain activity using
combination of radioactive tracers and molecules, measures decay
CT: computerized image using compilation of x-rays, cheap, fast, shows brain structures and if bleed is occuring
MRI: structural imaging, very detailed
fMRI: measure blood flow, shows which tissue is active
Stage 1 sleep
Usually occurs BETWEEN SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS, and sometimes between periods of deeper sleep and periods of REM. The brain transitions from alpha waves to theta waves. Sudden twitches and hypnic jerks may be associated sleep onset. Some people may also experience hypnagogic hallucinations during this stage
Stage 2 sleep
Theta activity is observed and sleepers become gradually harder to awaken; the alpha waves of the previous stage are interrupted by abrupt activity called sleep spindles and K-complexes.
a burst of oscillatory brain activity visible on an EEG that occurs during stage 2 sleep
Stage 3 sleep
Slow-wave, deep sleep. Consisting of delta activity, it is thought to be the most restful form of sleep in which the sleeper is less responsive to the environment. This is the stage in which night terrors, nocturnal enuresis, and sleepwalking occur
Most muscles are paralyzed, and heart rate, breathing and body temperature become unregulated, and the sleeper may experience vivid dreams. Although exhibiting high-frequency EEG waves similar to a waking state, the sleeper is harder to arouse than at any other sleep stage
physiological processes happening in the brain create dreams
Piaget's stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor (ages: 0-2 years): Involves learning to perceive the world using senses. During this stage they learn object permanence.
Preoperational Stage (ages: 2-7 years): symbolic thinking (images, words), egocentric
Concrete Operational Stage (ages: 7-11 years): During this period of time the child learns the principle of conservation, logical thinking
Formal Operational Stage (ages 12- adulthood): During this period of time people learn how to reason based on morals, how to form hypotheses, and other forms of abstract reasoning.
part of the reward system, involved in addiction, in basal forebrain
When does stranger anxiety develop?
When does separation anxiety develop?
What is the role of acetylcholine in CNS and PNS?
CNS-attention and arousal
PNS- transmit nerve impulses to muscles
What is common factor "g"?
general intelligence, the existence of a broad mental capacity that influences performance on cognitive ability measures
It's a way of controlling for order effects in a repeated measure design. Basically, participants are presented with the same variables in a different order in order to control for 'the order' being a potential confounding variable.
What is negative vs positive priming?
Priming is a key player in implicit memory; priming occurs when exposure to a stimulus influences the response to another stimulus. Positive priming speeds up the reaction to the stimulus, while negative priming slows down the reaction to the stimulus.
Implicit vs explicit memory
Implicit (procedural) memory refers to the ability to subconsciously use previous experiences to aid in future tasks. Implicit memory takes no effort, such as remembering how to drive a car. Explicit memory on the other hand, takes conscious effort
Unidirectional vs reciprocal relationship
Unidirectional: one variable as a cause and another as the effect - x causes y but y does not cause x
Reciprocal means that the cause can act to further cause itself again. Like depression—stressor causes depression, and then that depression causes further stressors. x causes y and y causes x.
The difference threshold is the smallest difference in stimulation that can be detected 50 percent of the time. The difference threshold is sometimes called the just noticeable difference (jnd), and it depends on the strength of the stimulus.
Signal detection theory
Used to predict when and how a signal will be recognized amidst other sensory information. There are four possible outcomes: hit, miss, false positive, accurate rejection
The generalized other
rest of society
Me vs I
Me: society's (the generalized other's) expectations
I: what we ourselves want to do, goes against what society would want