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Flashcards in psych382 Exam 1 Deck (65):
1

superego

"you cant have it, its not right." embodies parental and societal values, operates at all levels of consciousness. (the voice of our consciousness)

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ID

"I want it now," instincts/wants immediate gratification and operates in the unconscious as it attempts to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives.

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Ego

Develops from id. Primarily functions at conscious and preconscious lvls. "need to do a bit of planning to get it." deals with demands of society.

4

Problems with the id

it conforms to the pleasure principle meaning it strives for pleasure and unmet needs results in a state of unpleasant tension. it can be irrational, reckless, and immoral, because it doesn't care how needs are met

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Mechanisms: repression

keeping anxiety producing thoughts out of conscious mind

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Mechanisms: Denial

refusal to acknowledge the existence of a source of anxiety

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Mechanisms: Reaction formation

replacing an unacceptable wish with its opposite

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Mechanisms: Displacement

when a drive directed to one activity by the id is redirected to a more acceptable activity by the ego

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Mechanisms: Sublimation

displacement to activities that are valued by society

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Mechanisms: projection

reducing anxiety by attributing unacceptable impulses to someone else

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Mechanisms: Rationalization

reasoning away anxiety producing thoughts

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Mechanisms: Regression

retreating to a mode of behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development

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Dreams

are the royal road to the unconscious. There can be latent content ( the underlying hidden meaning) and manifest content in them as well as symbols (which are mostly sexual) . Ex: dream about tooth extraction (manifest content) could symbolize fear of castration (latent content)

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Freud's Psycho-sexual stages

these are his 5 stages of personality development, each associated with an erogenous zone. They are: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital,

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Oral Stage

(birth to 1) Mouth is associated with pleasure. A fixation can occur when weaning doesn't go right. This fixation can lead to oral activities in adulthood.

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Anal Stage

(1-3yr) anus associated with pleasure. fixation can occur from toilet training not going smoothly. can result in anal retentive or expulsive personalities in adulthood.

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Phallic Stage

(3-5yr) focus of pleasure is genitals. this is when Oedipus or Electra complex happens. fixation can lead to excessive masculinity in males.

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Latency Stage

(6-puberty) sexuality is repressed in this stage, so there is no fixation. Kids participate in school, hobbies, and same sex friendships.

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Genital Stage

(puberty on) sexual feelings re-emerge and are oriented towards others. Healthy adults find pleasure in love and work; adults fixated in earlier stages have their energy tied up in those earlier stages.

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what is the goal of projective assessment techniques?

if you provide people with ill structured stimuli (like ink blots) they will apply projective interpretations of what they seen

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What are the projective assessment techniques

1. associative, which is when you respond to the first word that comes to mind
2. completion, which is when you complete the thought or story begun with an incomplete thought

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reliability

consistency of a set of measurements

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validity

degree to which test measures what it claims to measure (something can be reliable but not valid)

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self report data

information provided by a person, such as through a survey or interview

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observer report data

information provided by someone else about another person

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test data

information provided by standardized tests or testing situations.

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physiological data

includes info about a persons lvl of arousal, reactivity to stimuli- potential indicators of personality

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Life- outcome data

info that can gleaned from events, activities, and outcomes in a persons life

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Animus/Anima archetype

the male element in a woman/ the female element in a man

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persona and shadow archetype

socially acceptable front vs. dark and unacceptable side of personality

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Mother archetype

embodiment of generativity and fertility

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hero and demon archetype

strong force for good vs. cruelty and evil

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Ego (Jung)

conscious part of personality that embodies the sense of self

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The personal unconscious (Jung)

contains thoughts that aren't currently part of unconscious awareness. (Contains accumulation of experiences and complexes)

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The collective unconscious (Jung)

a deeper level of unconscious shared with rest of humanity. It contains archetypes

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inferiority complex (Adler)

arises from striving for superiority. You become so overwhelmed with feelings of inferiority, so you just give up

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superiority complex (Adler)

arises from striving for superiority. It is a method of escape and makes false sense of success. It is not healthy, and can be root of mental illness

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Striving for superiority (Adler)

it is the central core of personality and can create both inferiority and superiority complexes

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Karen Horney

feminist neo-analytic theory

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Basic anxiety (Horney)

child's fear of being alone, helpless, and insecure. 3 ways of coping with it are: passive, aggressive, and withdrawn.

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Shared environmental influences on personality

features of environment shared by siblings (like the books in the house)

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Non-shared environmental influences on personality

features of environment that differs across siblings (like teachers and friends)

43

Sociobiology

a part of evolutionary psychology. It is the study of the biological basis of human social behavior. It argues that social behaviors exist because they confer adaptive advantage

44

gender differences in mate selection and competition

Men want an attractive mate who can conceive and bear healthy children, while women focus on earning ability (b/c they want someone who can support a fam)

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Genetic similarity theory

we are more attracted to people who resemble us. This is because we wanna pass our genes on.

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Erikson’s psychosocial stages: infancy

trust vs mistrust- basis for proving the world is predictable and developing the ego strength of hope

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Erikson’s psychosocial stages: Early Childhood

Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt- basis for feelings of control and competency and developing the ego strength of will

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Erikson’s psychosocial stages: preschool

initiative vs guilt- basis for sense of power in the world and developing the ego strength of purpose

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Erikson’s psychosocial stages: school age

industry vs inferiority- basis for sense of value, citizenship, and developing the ego strength of competence`

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Erikson’s psychosocial stages: adolescence

identity vs role confusion- basis for an integrated sense of private and social self and developing the ego strength of fidelity

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Erikson’s psychosocial stages: young adult

intimacy vs. isolation- basis for close, warm relationships and developing the ego strength of love

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Erikson’s psychosocial stages: adulthood

generativity vs stagnation- basis for positively influencing the future and developing the ego strength of care

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Erikson’s psychosocial stages: old age

ego integrity vs. despair- basis for sense of order and meaning in life and developing the go strength of wisdom

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inclusive fitness

the ability of an individual organism to pass on its genes to the next generation, taking into account the shared genes passed on by the organism's close relatives.

55

Mahlers theory

development represents a process of separation individuation. these patterns form the core of adult patterns of relationships

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conscious (Freud)

all things we are aware of at any given momment

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preconcious (Freud)

everything that can, with little effort, be brought into consciousness.

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Unconscious (Freud)

inaccessible warehouse of anxiety producing thoughts an drives (like instincts, traumas, fears, passions)

59

Carl Jungs theory

the mind or psyche has 3 parts: ego, personal unconscious, and collective unconscious

60

Adlers theory

idea of individual psychology- it emphasizes importance of social conditions on personality

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Kohut's theory

idea of self psychology- relationships create the structure for the self.

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Object relation theories

Emphasize social relationships and their origins in childhood. Believes that the first social attachments that infant develops forms prototypes for all future meaningful relationships

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Mirroring

Responding to a child’s narcissistic needs in an empathic, accepting way. This helps establish a sense of self

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Mirroring

Responding to a child’s narcissistic needs in an empathic, accepting way. This helps establish a sense of self

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Kin selection

We are more likely to help people related to us