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Flashcards in Psychodynamic approach Deck (13):
1

What does the psychodynamic approach suggest about behaviour?

Most of our mind is unconscious that directs behaviour.

2

What is the psychodynamics approach to the structure of personality?

The id
The ego
The superego

3

What is the id?

The id:
- operates on the pleasure principle
- mass of unconscious drives and instincts
- throughout life the id is entirely selfish and demands instant gratification of its needs.

4

What is the ego?

- operates on the reality principle
- mediator between the 2 other types of personality
- role is to reduce conflict between the demands of the id and the superego
- manages this by employing defence mechanisms

5

What is the superego?

- operates on the morality principle
- internalised sense of right and wrong
- punishes ego for wrongdoing (through guilt)

6

What are the 3 defence mechanisms?

- Repression: forcing a distressing memory out of the conscious mind
- Denial: refusing to acknowledge some aspect of reality
- Displacement: transferring feelings from the true source of distressing emotion onto a substitute target

7

What are the 5 psychosexual stages?

Oral
Anal
Phallic
Latency
Genital

8

Describe the oral stage.

- 0-1 years
- focus of pleasure is the mouth (mothers breast is the object of desire)
- oral fixation - smoking, biting nails.

9

Describe the anal stage.

- 1-3 years
- focus of pleasure is anus (child gains pleasure from withholding or expelling faeces)
- anal fixation - anal retentive (perfectionist) anal expulsive (messy)

10

Describe the phallic stage.

- 3-5 years
- focus of pleasure is genital area
- oedipus and electra complex

11

Describe the latency stage.

Earlier conflicts are repressed.

12

Describe the genital stage.

- Sexual desires become conscious alongside the onset of puberty.

13

States 3 negatives of the psychodynamic approach.

The case study method:
- Little Hans
- although details were careful recorded it is not possible to make such universal claims about human behaviour based on a small number of individuals
- highly subjective - Hans clearly had an alternative explanation
Untestable concepts:
- doesn't meet scientific criteria of falsification
- id, oedipus complex all unconscious so can't test
- pseudoscience
Psychic determinism:
- suggests free will is an illusion