Cognitive approach Flashcards Preview

Approaches > Cognitive approach > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cognitive approach Deck (13):

What is the cognitive approach's main focus?

Mental processes.


What is inference?

The process whereby cognitive psychologists draw conclusions about the way mental processes operate on the basis of observed behaviour.


What are the 2 types of models used?

Theoretical models
Computer models


Give an example of a theoretical model.

The information processing approach - the idea that information flows through the cognitive system in a sequence of stages that include input, storage and retrieval. E.G. MSM.


Explain computer models.

This is where the mind is compared to a computer ('the computer analogy') by suggesting that there are similarities in the way information is processed.


How is information processed through the 'computer analogy'?

Use the concepts of a central processing unit (the brain), the concept of coding (to turn information into a useable format) and the use of 'stores' to hold information.


What has the 'computer analogy' been useful in developing?

Artificial intelligence.


Define schema.

A mental framework of beliefs and expectations that influence cognitive processing that are developed through experience.
Enables us to process information quickly.


Give an example of a schema.

Riding a bike.


Describe the emergence of cognitive neuroscience.

- Emerged as understanding of the brain has developed.
- Scientists have been able to systematically observe and describe the neurological basis of mental processes.
- fMRI, PET scans


Give examples of the emergence of cognitive neuroscience.

- Tulving - Semantic LTM - left prefrontal lobe
Episodic LTM - right prefrontal lobe
- Parahippocampal gyrus and OCD


State 2 positives of the cognitive approach.

Scientific and objective methods:
- lab studies
- emergence of cognitive neuroscience - enabled the 2 fields of biology and cognitive psychology to come together
- credible scientific basis
Everyday application:
- contributed to development of robots and artificial intelligence


State 2 negatives of the cognitive approach.

Machine reductionism:
- ignores influence of human emotion which may affect our ability to process information
- E.G. research into human memory may be affected by emotional factors - anxiety and EWT
Limited application:
- cognitive psychologists can only infer about mental processes
- also studies often use artificial stimuli so may not represent everyday memory
- lack external validity