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Flashcards in Cognitive approach Deck (13):
1

What is the cognitive approach's main focus?

Mental processes.

2

What is inference?

The process whereby cognitive psychologists draw conclusions about the way mental processes operate on the basis of observed behaviour.

3

What are the 2 types of models used?

Theoretical models
Computer models

4

Give an example of a theoretical model.

The information processing approach - the idea that information flows through the cognitive system in a sequence of stages that include input, storage and retrieval. E.G. MSM.

5

Explain computer models.

This is where the mind is compared to a computer ('the computer analogy') by suggesting that there are similarities in the way information is processed.

6

How is information processed through the 'computer analogy'?

Use the concepts of a central processing unit (the brain), the concept of coding (to turn information into a useable format) and the use of 'stores' to hold information.

7

What has the 'computer analogy' been useful in developing?

Artificial intelligence.

8

Define schema.

A mental framework of beliefs and expectations that influence cognitive processing that are developed through experience.
Enables us to process information quickly.

9

Give an example of a schema.

Riding a bike.

10

Describe the emergence of cognitive neuroscience.

- Emerged as understanding of the brain has developed.
- Scientists have been able to systematically observe and describe the neurological basis of mental processes.
- fMRI, PET scans

11

Give examples of the emergence of cognitive neuroscience.

- Tulving - Semantic LTM - left prefrontal lobe
Episodic LTM - right prefrontal lobe
- Parahippocampal gyrus and OCD

12

State 2 positives of the cognitive approach.

Scientific and objective methods:
- lab studies
- emergence of cognitive neuroscience - enabled the 2 fields of biology and cognitive psychology to come together
- credible scientific basis
Everyday application:
- CBT
- contributed to development of robots and artificial intelligence

13

State 2 negatives of the cognitive approach.

Machine reductionism:
- ignores influence of human emotion which may affect our ability to process information
- E.G. research into human memory may be affected by emotional factors - anxiety and EWT
Limited application:
- cognitive psychologists can only infer about mental processes
- also studies often use artificial stimuli so may not represent everyday memory
- lack external validity