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Flashcards in Psychodynamic Therapies Deck (50):
1

5 Types of Psychodynamic Therapies

DEVELOPING INSIGHT

1) Object Relations
2) Self Psychology
3) Adler
4) Attachment
5) Depth Psychology

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Object Relations Psychodynamic Therapy
Theory of Change

- Change occurs through both REPARATIVE experiences within the treatment relationship and from new insight into the modification on entrenched object relations pathology
- What is happening between CLIENT AND THERAPIST

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Object Relations Psychodynamic Therapy
Therapist's Role

- Neutral
- Emphasis on TRANSFERENCE and COUNTERTRANFERENCE
- Therapist as a new and GOOD OBJECT

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Object Relations Psychodynamic Therapy
Treatment Goals

- Providing REPARATIVE experiences and building new internal structures (SELF SOOTHING, POSITIVE TALK)
- Gaining INSIGHT to how past relationships impact client's functioning
- Improving relationships with self and others

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Object Relations Psychodynamic Therapy
Phases of Treatment
Beginning

- Establish a holding environment
- Build RAPPORT and THERAPEUTIC ALLIANCE through listening, EMPATHYand remaining neutral
- Explore client's experience

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Object Relations Psychodynamic Therapy
Phases of Treatment
Middle

- Promote insight and growth through INTERPRETATION
- CONFRONT resistance and primitive DEFENSE MECHANISMS
- Focus on TRANSFERENCE/COUNTERTRANSFERENCE dynamic
- Identify and process PROJECTIVE IDENTIFICATION

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Object Relations Psychodynamic Therapy
Phases of Treatment
End

- Work through termination and abandonment issues
- CONSOLIDATE interpretations
- REVIEW insights gained in therapy

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Object Relations Psychodynamic Therapy
Key Concept: PROJECTIVE IDENTIFICATION

- Person will project a thought or belief that they have onto a second person
- The second person is changed by the projection and begins to behave as though they are characterized by those thoughts or beliefs that have been projected

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Object Relations Psychodynamic Therapy
Key Concept: Splitting

When two contradictory states, such as love and hate, are COMPARTMENTALIZED and NOT INTEGRATED

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Object Relations Psychodynamic Therapy
Key Concept: Internalization

Early infant-caretaker interactions lead to the person internalizing basic attitudes toward self and other, characteristic relational patterns and a repertoire of defenses and internal capacities

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Self Psychology Psychodynamic Therapy
Theory of Change

EMPATHY
Change occurs through EMPATHETIC ATTUNEMENT and strengthening the self-structures through optimal responsiveness - understanding experience

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Self Psychology Psychodynamic Therapy
Therapist's Role

- Emphasis on EMPATHETIC understanding and optimal responsiveness
- Allow emergence of self-object transferences and the repair of disruptions
- REPARENTING the client

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Self Psychology Psychodynamic Therapy
Treatment Goals

- Develop self-cohesion and self-esteem
- Locating better self objects

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Self Psychology Psychodynamic Therapy
Phases of Treatment
Beginning

- Establish a therapeutic holding environment
- Demonstrate that the therapist is able to provide CONTAINMENT
- Provide "experience-near" empathy
- Explore client's problem and history

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Self Psychology Psychodynamic Therapy
Phases of Treatment
Middle

- REPAIR disruptions of the self-object transference
- Addressing enactments
- Empathizing with losses and blows to self
- Mourning loss of self-objects
- Identify alternative self-objects

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Self Psychology Psychodynamic Therapy
Phases of Treatment
End

- Reflect on treatment process
- Acknowledge and process issues related to termination

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Self Psychology Psychodynamic Therapy
Key Concept: Mirroring

Approving and confirming responses

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Self Psychology Psychodynamic Therapy
Key Concept: Twinship Transference

Client experiences the therapist as someone like themself

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Self Psychology Psychodynamic Therapy
Key Concept: Experience-Near Empathy

- Therapist steps into client's shoes and imagines what it is like to be the client
- Flush out and clarify experience

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Adlerian Therapy
Theory of Change

Change occurs by increasing client's SELF-AWARENESS and challenging and modifying their fundamental premises, life goals, and basic concepts

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Adlerian Therapy
Therapist's Role

- Accepting, encouraging, respectful, optimistic
- Co-thinker
- Relationship is COLLABORATIVE and built on trust

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Adlerian Therapy
Treatment Goals

SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE
- Challenge the client's basic premises and life goals
- Develop SOCIALLY useful goals and increase social interests
- Increase the client's sense of belonging

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Adlerian Therapy
Phases of Treatment
Beginning

- ESTABLISH the relationship: seek person to person contact rather than start with "the problem"
- Help clients become AWARE of their assets and strengths
- Completes assessment using early recollections, questionnaires, and family constellations exploration
- Summary shared with client
- Focus on dynamics that may have influenced the sense of self, inferiority and the world

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Adlerian Therapy
Phases of Treatment
Middle

- Encourage self-understanding and INSIGHT through INTERPRETATION
- Clients are positively encouraged to overcome insecure feeling through therapist's optimism
- Collaboratively explore ways in which client can feel more deeply connected to SOCIAL context
- Support client to turn dysfunctional styles of life into more functional, socially beneficial ones

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Adlerian Therapy
Phases of Treatment
End

- Putting insights into practice
- Encouraging clients to take risks with new behaviors to act as if they are the people they want to be

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Adlerian Therapy
Key Concepts: Inferiority

- Inferiority feelings are always present as a motivating force in behavior
- Source of all human striving
- Individual growth results from compensation, from our attempts to overcome our real or imagined inferiorities

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Adlerian Therapy
Key Concepts: Early Recollection

- Used as an assessment tool
- Stories of events that occurred BEFORE AGE 10
- Specific incidents that include what the client thought and felt at the time

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Adlerian Therapy
Key Concepts: Family Constellation

- EXPLORATION of the family atmosphere and RELATIONAL dynamics that prevailed in the family when the client was a young child

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Adlerian Therapy
Key Concepts: Role Playing

- MIDDLE STAGE
- Offers clients opportunities to add missing experiences to their repertoire
- Explore and practice new behavior in the safety of the therapist's office

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Attachment-based Therapy
Theory of Change

Change occurs through exploration of past and current RELATIONAL attachments and trauma in the environment of a healing, secure and reliable relationship

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Attachment-based Therapy
Therapist's Role

- Provide a sufficiently SECURE BASE to enable a person to explore emotional experiences of the past and the present
- Create a secure, ACCEPTING, caring, non-judgmental, and reliable environment where the client can feel comfortable sharing their most traumatic experiences and exploring the nature of the client's attachment pattern

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Attachment-based Therapy
Treatment Goals

- Raise AWARENESS of client's problematic behavioral and emotional patterns, formed in early childhood as attempts to maintain attachment to primary caregivers
- REPAIR the capacity to regulate affects
- RESOLVE any emotional or social disruptions within the client's life
- Improve quality of attachment with others

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Attachment-based Therapy
Phases of Treatment
Beginning

- ATTUNEMENT is the key intervention at this stage
- Forging a personal relationship with client
- Provide a secure base by reliably demonstrating EMPATHY and care
- Collaboratively identifying client's attachment style, problematic behavioral and emotional patterns, formed in early childhood as attempts to maintain attachment to primary caregivers

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Attachment-based Therapy
Phases of Treatment
Middle

- Disruptions explored, including those in early life, as well as those in current relationships, including the therapist
- Support client's ability to REGULATE and EXPRESS emotions in relationally difficult situations
- Teaching clients to have a REFLECTIVE stance toward themselves

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Attachment-based Therapy
Phases of Treatment
End

- REPAIR occurs at late middle phase and end
- Aims to alter the client's current reactions to the events that cause them emotional distress by sharing their own interpretation
- Therapist helps create new reality of the painful events for client in order to get rid of unwanted emotions and reactions

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Attachment-based Therapy
Key Concept: Attachment Behavior System

- Process in which infants and caregivers have an organized pattern of signals and responses that lead to a development of a protecting trusting relationship
- The EMOTIONAL BOND that develops between adult romantic partners is partly a function of the same motivational system

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Attachment-based Therapy
Key Concept: Secure Attachment

- Person has easy access to wide range of feelings and memories, positive and negative
- Has a BALANCED view of parents and has worked through hurt and anger from the past
- Has developed a STRONG SENSE OF SELF and empathy for others

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Attachment-based Therapy
Key Concept: Preoccupied / Anxious Attachment

- Person is still embroiled with ANGER and HURT at parents
- Sometimes value intimacy to such an extent that they become OVERLY DEPENDENT on the attachment figure both past and present
- Often recall role reversal in childhood and have a hard time seeing their own responsibility in relationships
- Dread ABANDONMENT

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Attachment-based Therapy
Key Concept: Dismissive / Avoidant Attachment

- Person DISMISSES the importance of love and connection and the value of emotions in general
- Often IDEALIZES parents, but actual memories don't corroborate
- Dislike looking inward and often have a shallow, if any, self-reflection
- Often are very independent, dismissive of their own emotionality and have difficulty tolerating the heightened emotions of others

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Attachment-based Therapy
Key Concept: Fearful / Avoidant Attachment

- Person usually has a history of TRAUMA and or LOSS
- Dismiss the importance of love and connection but usually out of fear or a belief that they are UNWORTHY of love
- Have difficulty trusting others and may feel uncomfortable with emotional closeness

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Depth Psychology Therapy
Theory of Change

SOUL PSYCHOLOGY
- Change occurs through exploring and integrating material from both unconscious and conscious levels of understanding
- Unconscious processes include DREAMS, images, symptoms, intuitions and other non-volitional experiences
- "SOUL speaking out"

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Depth Psychology Therapy
Therapist's Role

Form a critical ALLIANCE which invites client to explore connections and meanings that are BELOW THE SURFACE of conscious awareness ad engages the transpersonal, mysterious space between therapist and client

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Depth Psychology Therapy
Treatment Goals

- Increase self-awareness and INNER WISDOM
- Integration of repressed experiences and SHADOW MATERIAL
- INDIVIDUATION: fostering self-awareness through inner and outer exploration of the unconscious, the individual and the wider community, leading to discovery of a more potent sense of meaning and purpose in life

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Depth Psychology Therapy
Phases of Treatment
Beginning

Invitation and exploration of material the client brings to therapy, including relational situations, DREAMS, EXPERIENCE, IMAGES, etc.

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Depth Psychology Therapy
Phases of Treatment
Middle

- Placing client experience into a mytho-poetic lens, looking at images, myth, story, imagination and archetypal patterns within the conscious and unconscious happenings in client's life
- Looking for MEANING by orienting one's experience into the greater human story

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Depth Psychology Therapy
Phases of Treatment
End

- Integration of unconscious material often marked by acceptance of taboo subjects and previously discarded aspects of the personality
- Acknowledgment of self-awareness and INNER WISDOM

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Depth Psychology Therapy
Key Concept: Archetypes

- Basic patterns of human behavior and situations that seem to be COMMON amongst all people
- Hero, mother, father, orphan, etc

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Depth Psychology Therapy
Key Concept: Collective Unconscious

- Passed down through generations and is shared by all people
- UNIVERSAL library of human knowledge

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Depth Psychology Therapy
Key Concept: Mythology

Personal symptoms, conflicts, and stucknesses contain a mythic or transpersonal / archetypal core that when interpreted can reintroduce the client to the MEANING of their struggles

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Depth Psychology Therapy
Key Concept: Psyche & Soul

- Know these terms
- SOUL is the dimension of the person that makes meaning possible
- Turns events into experiences and deepens the human experience
- Attunes itself to the way the psyche reveals itself