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Flashcards in Psychological Therapies Deck (26):

Insight Therapy

general term referring to therapy that involves dialogue between client and therapist for the purpose of gaining awareness and understanding of psychological problems and conflicts
-Effectiveness depends on conditions being treated


Psychodynamic Therapy

-form of insight therapy that emphasize the need to discover and resolve unconscious conflicts
-developed by Freud
-behaviour and psychological issues lie in unconscious, bringing material out of unconscious mind into consciousness allows people to gain insight on their problems and “frees” them


Free Association

clients encouraged to talk or write without censoring thoughts in any way
- uncensored thought was thought to reveal clues to parts of unconscious mind that wouldn't normally be allowed to express


Dream Analysis

examining details of dreams to gain insight into true meaning of dream, the emotional, unconscious material that is communicated symbolically



occurs as treatment brings up unconscious material that client wishes to avoid, and the client engages in strategies for keeping the information out of conscious awareness
i.e.changing the subject



clients direct emotional experiences that they are reliving toward the therapist, rather than the original person involved in the experiences
i.e.feeling criticized by mother and begins to feel criticized by analyst


Modern Psychodynamic Therapies:

-More concerned with conscious rather than unconscious mind
-Acknowledge of cultural, personal influences


Object Relations Therapy

-variation of psychodynamic therapy that focuses on how early childhood experiences and emotional attachments influence later psychological functioning
-focuses on “objects” which are clients mental representation of themselves and others
-objects results in development of a mental model of relationships
-used to see patterns in relationships, such as trust, fear of abandonment


Interpersonal Psychotherapy:

-therapist becomes “participant observer” and interacts with and observes client over time to understand any unrealistic expectations that the client may have towards their relationships/situations in life
-found to effectively treat depression, substance abuse, eating disorders


Humanistic-Existential Psychotherapy:

-Emphasizes individual strengths and potential growth, and belief that human nature is positive
-Helps people express themselves, overcome alienation, become for loving, be in the moment
-Humanistic therapist focus on removing obstacles that prevent self actualization
Existential therapists emphasize importance of facing painful experiences such as feelings about isolation and death, believing that self actualization involves transforming by facing fears


Phenomenological Approach

therapist addresses clients feelings and thoughts rather than looking for unconscious motives


Client-Centred Therapy (Person-Centred Therapy):

-focuses on individuals’ abilities to solve their own problems and reach their full potential with the encouragement of the therapist
-not very effective


Condition of Worth

you’re only worth something if you do something right
i.e.a father is never satisfied by kid’s grades


Behavioural Therapies

address problem behaviours and environmental factors that trigger them as directly as possible

-Belief that behavioural patterns are the result of conditioning and learning

-Seeks to recondition clients until they develop new, more functional, habits

-Effective at treating anxiety disorders, phobias, and increase behavioural skills, and decreasing problematic behaviours


Systematic Desensitization:

-Gradual exposure to a feared stimulus or situation is coupled with relaxation training



Client goes straight to the most challenging part of hierarchy, exposing themselves to the scenario that causes the most exited and panic



client observes another person engage with the feared object or situation
i.e. person who is scared of snaked watches another person hold a snake


Aversive Conditioning

-replacing a positive response to a stimulus with a negative response, typically by using punishment
i.e. drug Antabuse causes nausea and vomiting when combined with alcohol, so classically conditions aversion to alcohol


Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT):

-consists of procedures such as cognitive restructuring, stress inoculation training, and exposing people to experiences they may have a tendency to avoid

-helps clients become more aware of current thoughts and emotions and make them more positive

-effective at treating depression


Negative Explanatory Style

tendency to make internal, stable, and global attributions for negative events


Internal Attributions

excessive self blame


Stable Attributions

its never going to change


Global attributions

my whole life is ruined


Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy:

-Involves combining mindfulness meditation with standard cognitive-behavioural therapy tools
-Focuses on “accepting” yourself rather than trying to fix yourself



occurs when one is able to “step back” from one’s normal consciousness and observe oneself more objectively, as an observer
-Effective at treating major depressive disorder, social and generalized anxiety disorder


Systems Approach

encourages therapists to see an individual’s symptoms as being influenced by many different interacting systems

-used in group/family therapy