Flashcards in Psychology Deck (40):
what is a goal?
a desired aim or outcome; something that you are trying to achieve
what are the SMARTER goals?
what is meant by 'specific' for goal setting?
make your goal or target specific and not too vague
what is meant by 'measurable' for goal setting?
it is possible to measure whether you have achieved it or not
what is meant by 'agreed' for goal setting?
you and your coach must discuss and agree your goals. They need to be a challenge and achievable in order for you to make progress
what is meant by 'realistic' for goal setting?
a goal that is too difficult will demotivate you can put you off. The targets must be reachable.
what is meant by 'time-phased' for goal setting?
goals should be planned out ahead to give you direction over the short, medium and long term. For example: goals for the next week (short term), goals for the next month (medium term), goals for the next year (long term). As you achieve these goals, you know you are making progress
what is meant by 'exciting' for goal setting?
goals that are exciting and challenging will prevent you from getting bored and disillusioned. As you make progress, your goals should get more difficult and more exciting
what is meant by 'recorded' for goal setting?
your goals should be written down, then you will know what you are aiming for, where you are going and can check when you have met your targets
how can goal setting help to reduce anxiety?
by setting realistic goals, agreed between the performer and coach, the performer will be more confident going into a competitive situation. The goals should still be challenging, but knowing they are well prepared, the performer should believe they can achieve them. They will also feel more in control of the situation
what is motivation?
the desire required to be successful; a driving force that makes you do something and decide how much effort to put in
what is intrinsic motivation?
motivation that comes from simply doing the activity itself, rather than to gain external rewards or prizes
what is extrinsic motivation?
motivating forces that come from outside the person and the activity, such as prizes, trophies, praise from others or fame
what are the factors of intrinsic motivation?
- the desire to do the sport or activity for its own sake
- feeling of satisfaction or well-being from doing the activity
- improved physical fitness
- social rewards from playing in a team
what are the factors of extrinsic motivation?
- praise from a parent, a coach or the crowd
- rewards in terms of money, prizes, medals or trophies
- the desire for attention, publicity or fame
- at professional level, the search for sponsorship or a better contract
what is a reward?
something given to someone to recognise their achievements
what is an incentive?
something that motivates or encourages someone to do something
what is arousal?
an increased level of mental excitement and alertness; the state of being excited, keen and mentally and physically ready to perform a task
what are the symptoms of physical arousal?
- dry mouth
- increased breathing
- increased heart rate
- sweaty palms
inverted U theory diagram
what are the effects of under arousal?
- you will not be excited or focused enough to perform at the required level
- however, fine motor skills such as darts require low levels of arousal to perform well
what are the affects of over arousal?
- you feel anxious, nervous or stressed
- you could be 'psyched out' by the opposition
- you may make mistakes of not give your best performance
what is arousal at the optimum level?
known as being 'in the zone', a state that allows you to perform well
what does the inverted U theory tell us?
the inverted U graph provides an indicator to the level of arousal a performer needs to be at in order to succeed in their sport
what is anxiety?
negative reaction from a performer to stress, causing the performer to feel worried, nervous or apprehensive
what is cognitive anxiety?
the mental symptoms that a performer feels, such as fear, worry and doubt, that can occur if the performer is in a a state of under-arousal or over-arousal
what is somatic anxiety?
the physical signs of anxiety that can be termed as 'butterflies in the stomach'
what are the causes of anxiety?
- uncertainty- i don't know whether i can succeed or not
- pressure- i have to take that penalty. what if i miss?
- effect on self-esteem- other people will have a lower opinion of me if i don't perform well
- fear of harm- i might get hurt or injured
- frustration- i won't win the trophy i set my heart on. I might not make the first team
what is the physiological symptoms of anxiety?
Production of adrenaline- your adrenal glands, found just above your kidneys, release a hormone called adrenaline into the bloodstream
what other physiological symptoms does adrenaline cause?
- Increased heart rate- adrenaline makes the heart beat faster. More oxygen and glucose are then pumped onto the muscles
- Increased respiration- adrenaline causes you to breathe faster and more deeply to allow oxygen to quickly reach the muscles
- muscle tense- adrenaline causes your muscles to tense in readiness for action
what is mental rehearsal?
running through a skill, sequence or event in your mind, in detail, using all your senses
what is visualisation?
'seeing' the best positive outcome for the skill/technique you are about to perform
what is deep breathing?
a learned way of breathing in a deep, calm and focused way to promote relaxation as well as physical well-being
what do relaxation techniques help a performer to do?
- increase their concentration by focusing on how to execute the skills successfully
- understand that a reduced resting heart rate will lower the risk of heart disease
- realise that the heart does not need to pump as fast due to the higher levels of oxygen being carried in the blood
what does deep breathing allow a performer to do?
- improve their stamina by increasing the efficiency of their oxygen intake
- encourage the correct breathing technique during exercise
- lower the amount of adrenaline released and so prevent the heart rate from rising
- lower their heart rate by getting oxygen absorbed into the blood more efficiently
what can a coach encourage a performer to do?
- think about their distractions
- use the experience of mental rehearsal to overcome those situations
- visualise successful occasions when performing under pressure
what is an introvert?
a quiet, shy, reserved personality type; associated with individual sports
what is an extrovert?
a sociable, lively, optimistic, outgoing personality type; more associated with team sports
what are the typical characteristics of an introvert?
- quiet, shy and reserved types of people
- prefer taking part in activities and sports by themselves
- enjoy their own company and like being on their own
- are often involved in activities that demand high concentration and accuracy
- excel at sports that require fine movement skills
- perform better with lower levels of arousal
- practice by themselves or in the company of few others
- tend to dislike contact sports and have a lower tolerance to pain