Flashcards in skills and skill acquisition Deck (84):
what is the definition of skill?
a learned and practiced ability that brings about the results that you want to achieve with maximum certainty and efficiency
what is the definition of ability?
the qualities and characteristics a person is born with, such as speed, coordination, agility, flexibility, balance, reaction time, that allow a person to learn or acquire skills
what is the difference between skill and ability?
a person's ability will help them to learn a skill. Their innate ability will help them to become good at the skills they practice. Specific skills needed to play each sport are very different although your general ability may help you play decently in a different sport and help you learn the skills quickly
what are the 8 factors that can affect the variation of skill level within a performer?
- age and maturity
- arousal conditions
- teaching and coaching
how does age and maturity affect skill level?
how young a person is can affect how good they become. Starting younger provides more time to become expert
how do arousal conditions affect skill level?
someone who is calm and enjoys low arousal may perform well in shooting or archery, which require fine motor skills. People with high arousal levels may prefer football or boxing, which require more gross motor skills
how do facilities affect skill level?
the kinds of facilities that are available and accessible will impact on the sports and level of sport that is offered
how does the environment affect skill level?
where you live will affect your choices. If you live where there is snow, you are more likely to ski than if you live in a tropical climate
how does teaching and coaching affect skill level?
the quality and provision of coaching available will affect skill level. For example, Andy Murray left the UK for Spain to develop his tennis skills
how does anxiety affect skill level?
if you see the skill as difficult, for example, it may stop you improving. The coach must break the skill down to help motivate you
how does motivation affect skill level?
this will influence the skills you choose and how well you master them. A desire to succeed will encourage you to practice and seek new challenges
how does culture affect skill level?
background can impact upon the skills you learn. A person with the ability to play striking sports is likely to play baseball in the USA, but cricket in India
what are cognitive skills?
how we think and make decisions
what are perceptual skills?
how we visualise and anticipate things
what are the 6 characteristics of a skilled performance?
- aesthetically pleasing
- goal directed
what does accurate mean?
achieving precise, reliable movements
what does consistent mean?
performing to a high level every time with control and quality
what does fluent mean?
using movements that are quick, smooth and flowing, without hesitation or stumbling
what does coordinated mean?
moving different parts of the body together with efficiency and control
what does aesthetically pleasing mean?
a display that looks good to the eye of the spectator, judge or coach
what does goal directed mean?
focusing performing on a specific target and being determined to achieve that target
what are basic skills?
simple skills such as throwing, catching, hitting a ball and running
what are complex skills?
more difficult skills that require a high level of coordination and concentration
what are closed skills?
skills that are not affected by the environment or the performers within it
why is classifying skills useful?
it helps us to understand how the skill can be taught most effectively. Giving targeted guidance and training enables a performer to be successful at the sill
what are open skills?
skills that are affected by the environment; the performer has to react and adjust to the situation and this will constantly change
where are open skills most commonly seen?
open skills are most commonly seen in team games such as football, rugby and hockey. The environment may change from game to game, or even during the game. A player may face different weather conditions, the quality and state of the pitch can vary or may change as the game progresses
where are closed skills most commonly seen?
a closed skill is often seen in individual and indoor events. Most swimming events require closed skills, as the swimming pool is a stable and constant environment and most pools have the same characteristics. There is also no interaction during the race. Many athletics events also require closed skills
what are fine skills?
precise movements that require high levels of accuracy and technique; they are often small movements that require small groups of muscles such as in the fingers eg. firing an arrow in archery
what are gross skills?
movements that use large muscle groups to produce big, powerful movements; gross skills are usually performed by the arms and legs eg. running, jumping, throwing
what is a continuum?
a scale that changes gradually from one end to the other
how can skills be measure in each sport?
each pair of skills can be charted on a continuum. eg. performing the long jump involves relatively basic skills of running and jumping, although there are of course more technical aspects to the event
what are the four stages of the information-processing model?
- decision making
what is the input in the information-processing model?
- this is the information that is received
- the performer receives it via their senses: sight, touch, hearing
- it could also come via feedback from previous experiences, or intuition
what is the decision-making in the information-processing model?
- the information is analysed by the performer so they can choose the most appropriate response
- it is stored in the performer's short-term memory at first
- if the information is rehearsed (repeated), it can be stored in long-term memory; otherwise it is lost
- experienced performers will have more relevant information store in their LTM because they have more chances to rehearse
what is the output in the information-processing model?
- the decision is made then acted upon
- the brain sends information to the muscles
- these muscles then move and perform the skill or action
what is the feedback in the information-processing model?
- information is also received about the output or outcome of the decision: that is, wether your decision and action was good or bad
- this knowledge can be stored and used for future decisions
- the performer can receive this information in two ways: through intrinsic or extrinsic feedback
what is the information-processing model?
the four-stage process that a performer goes through to make a decision and act upon it
what is short-term memory?
system for storing a small amount of information for a brief period; STM can hold up to 7 pieces of information for 60 seconds
what is long-term memory?
memory store that can hold vast amounts of information for a long period
what does rehearse mean?
repeat information over and over in order to get the information processed and stored as a memory
what is intrinsic feedback?
information that comes from within, concerning the feel of movement, such as what it feels like to balance
what is extrinsic feedback?
information that comes from an external source, for example, a teacher or coach or the response of the crowd/teammates
what is meant by limited-channel capacity?
the idea that our brains can only process a certain amount of information at once; too much information results in overload
what is meant by single-channel hypothesis?
the theory that when receiving many stimuli from the environment, the brain can only deal with one stimulus at a time. This might affect performance
what is meant my multi-channel hypothesis?
the theory that the brain can process different types of information at the same time by using different channels for different stimuli. Performance suffers only if two similar tasks are attempted
what are the three stages of learning?
stage 1: cognitive
stage 2: associative
stage 3: autonomous
what is the cognitive stage?
the preparation stage: you start to learn the new skill or technique. You consciously think about what is involved and the actions you need to perform the skill. A large number of mistakes will be made
what is the associative stage?
also called the practice stage: you continue repeating and practicing skills and techniques so that they improve. The number of mistakes decreases as your skills improve
what is the autonomous stage?
also called the automatic stage: you can perform the skill naturally and without conscious thought. You show control and accuracy, and even flair. Mistakes are rare, when you do make mistakes, you can analyse what went wrong
describe the three stages of learning
the three stages of learning form a continuum, with each stage merging into the next. As your skill level increases, you will gradually progress from one stage to the next. There may be times when you have to move back a stage, for example, if you are using an incorrect technique and need to 'relearn' the correct technique
what characteristics will a performer find at the cognitive stage?
- you begin to find out exactly what is involved in the skill
- you breakdown the skill into subroutines (the different parts of an action) and try to master each subroutine
- you make lots of mistakes and need lots of coaching
- you may follow an expert and shadow their movements
what characteristics will a performer find at the associative stage?
- you combine the subroutines of the skill
- you repeat and practice, so that you become more consistent in performing the skill or technique
- you may practice in a controlled environment (e.g a reduced sized court)
- you may use specialised equipment to help practice a specific subroutine
- you try out more advanced skills and techniques
what characteristics will a performer find at the autonomous stage?
- you can perform the skill naturally and without conscious thought
- you can play full games/matches putting the skills/techniques you have learned into practice
- when you make a mistake, you can identify what went wrong
- the skill is performed with flair, control and accuracy
what is the meaning of 'part' when learning a skill?
break down the complex skill into smaller parts, eg. learn ball toss in tennis serve, bat grip in cricket
what is the meaning of 'variable' when learning a skill?
repeat the technique in a range of different situations: in isolation or competition
what is the meaning of 'fixed' when learning a skill?
repeat the technique in one situation over and over again- know as a 'drill'
what is the meaning of 'whole' when learning a skill?
practice all of the different parts at once, eg. kicking a ball, a defensive shot in cricket
what are the four different types of feedback?
- knowledge of performance
- knowledge of results
what is feedback?
the information that a performer receives after their performace
why is feedback useful to a performer?
feedback allows the performer or participant to identify what they have done well and what needs to be improved. Without feedback you are isolated and have nothing to compare your performance against. You may even regress.
what is knowledge of results?
knowing your score, time, distance or place in the race; this allows you to measure of judge how well you have done. It is an extrinsic form of feedback
what is knowledge of performance?
analysing your quality of movement or use of techniques (eg. how good your timing was when hitting a cricket ball). It can be either extrinsic or intrinsic
what type of feedback are cognitive learners most likely to use?
extrinsic feedback is important for beginners who have yet to develop a 'feel' for movements or techniques
what are the advantages of intrinsic feedback?
- performers can make immediate adjustments
what are the disadvantages of intrinsic feedback?
- requires a high level of knowledge about the skill or activity being performed (autonomous stage)
- beginners do not have this knowledge
- better for more experienced and skilled performers
what are the advantages of extrinsic feedback?
- good for beginners (cognitive stage) as they need constant feedback in order to learn
- coaches can make beginners aware of basic skills and techniques
- experienced performers combine extrinsic and intrinsic feedback to get a better picture of their performance
what are the disadvantages of extrinsic feedback?
- needs a qualified coach to give the feedback
- incorrect feedback from a poor quality coach will cause performances to decline
what are the advantages of knowledge of results?
- results give a quick measure of success
- they should be accurate if recorded properly
- knowledge of results can give a target for improvement
- helps show improvement over time if recorded regularrly
what are the disadvantages of knowledge of results?
- poor results can be demotivating
- improvement might slow down and this can be demotivating
- results may not reflect skill or performance. Coming third in a race with strong performers may be a better results than coming first in a race with weak performers
what are the advantages of knowledge of performance?
- feedback can be tailored to suit the performer's ability level
- can be simple feedback on one or two areas for beginners
- can be specific, complex and detailed for the experienced performers
what are the disadvantages of knowledge of performance?
- it can be difficult can time-consuming to analyse the performances of experienced sports people
- there may be many skills and techniques that require feedback. This can take time
- the coach may need to see videos of the performance first in order to get there feedback accurate
why is feedback so important?
it's essential for helping us to assess how well we have performed. It can help us to improve by showing us which skills and techniques we need to develop. It can be given during or after a performance
what is guidance?
help and instruction given to guide learners through movement patterns, skills and techniques, and so help them acquire skills
what are the four types of guidance?
- verbal- in the form of words
- visual- in the form of images
- manual- 'hands on' guidance, showing you how to hold a racket of swing a golf club
- mechanical- guidance on how to use physical supports such as harnesses or floatation aids
what are the advantages of visual guidance?
- learners can see accurate performance and form a mental picture of correct performance
- demonstrations can be repeated if necessary
- the 'slow motion' option on video allows you to focus in on subroutines or specific aspects of a skill
- useful in all stages of learning
what are the disadvantages of visual guidance?
- demonstrations need to be accurate and expertly performed
- poor-quality videos are not helpful
what are the advantages of verbal guidance?
- it is immediate. Instructions (especially if short) can be acted on straight away
- coaches/teachers can use questions to assess and check learning and understanding
- verbal and visual guidance can be combined to paint a more accurate picture for the learner
what are the disadvantages of verbal guidance?
- long or complicated instructions are hard to take in. This can be a particular problem for beginners taking in a lot of new information at once
- some movements cannot be accurately explained using words
what are the advantages of manual/mechanical guidance?
- useful in the early stages of learning when the coach can position or adjust the learner's limbs or body parts
- helps individual to get a feel for the movement and develop muscle memory
- can provide a safe environment to try out more hazardous activities (e.g in gymnastics)
- gives performers a sense of security and helps deal with feelings of anxiety or fear
what are the disadvantages of manual/mechanical guidane?
- learners can come to depends on support from coach/equipment
- can give learners an unrealistic 'feeling' of the motion: for example, they do not take their full body weight in a gymnastics movement
- learners may resist having the manual/mechanical guidance taken away
what stages of learning is visual guidance useful for?
useful for all stages, but is most effective at the cognitive stage to provide an overall picture of the skill. To analyse performance further, video recordings can be used for specific details
what stages of learning is verbal guidance useful for?
cognitive learners have limited understanding of terms used in the activity and may tire quickly if too much verbal guidance is given. More detailed explanations can be used for more advanced learners