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Flashcards in Psychology chapter 1 basic concepts Deck (10):

What makes psychology challenging?

1. Multiply determined, 2. psychological influences are rarely independent of each other, 3. people differ in thinking, emotion, etc.., 4. reciprocal determinism, 5. behaviour shaped by culture.


Why can't we always trust our common sense?

Naïve realism.


What are the warning signs of pseudoscience?

1. exaggerated claims
2. over reliance on anecdotes
3. absence of connectivity with other research
4. lack of peer review
5. lack of self-correction
6. meaningless psychobabble
7. talk of proof rather than evidence


What are the different fallacies associated with pseudoscience?

Logical fallacy, emotional reasoning fallacy, bandwagon fallacy, not me fallacy, bias blind spot fallacy. (BLEMB)


What are the dangers of pseudoscience?

opportunity cost and direct harm.


What are the three attitudes that are key to scientific skepticism?

1. An open mind to all claims
2. A willingness to accept claims that have evidence
3. Unwillingness to accept claims based on authority alone


What are the six scientific principles?

1. Ruling out rival hypotheses
2. Correlation isn't causation
3. Falsifiability
4. Replicability
5. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence
6. Occam's razor


What are the different theoretical frameworks of psychology throughout history?

1. Structuralism
2. Functionalism
3. Behaviourism
4. Cognitivism
5. Psychoanalysis


Describe the nature-nurture debate.

Some believe our beaviour is due to mostly genes (nature) and others believe it is mostly due to our environment. (nurture)


What is the free-will determinism debate?

To what extent are our behaviours freely selected rather than caused by factors outside our control.