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Define Anatomy.

Study of the structure of the body.


What are body systems?

Groups of organs are organized into body systems. Each system is a collection of organs that perform related functions and interact to accomplish a common activity essential for survival of the whole body.


What is a cell?

Basic or fundamental unit of both structure and function in a living being.


What is cell differentiation?

Cells become specialized to carry out a particular function.


What is connective tissue?

One of the four primary tissue types. Distinguished by having relatively few cells dispersed within an abundance of extracellular material.


What is a control centre?

Also known as the integrator, which compare's the sensor's input with the optimal range and adjusts the effector output.


What is a controlled variable?

Factor held within a narrow range by a control system.


What is an effector?

Causes the needed adjustments responsible for restoring factor within normal range.


What are endocrine glands?

Lack ducts and release their secretory products, known as hormones, internally into the blood.


What is epithelial tissue?

Consists of cells specializing in exchange of materials between the cell and its environment.


What are exocrine glands?

Secrete through ducts to the outside of the body.


What is extracellular fluid (ECF)?

The fluid outside the cell. It s the internal environment of the body.


What are extrinsic controls?

More common of the two controls, and are regulatory mechanisms initiated outside an organ to alter the activity of the organ. Achieved by the two major regulatory systems (endocrine and nervous). Permits synchronized regulation of several organs to a common goal.


What is a feedback mechanism?

A response after a change has been detected.


What is a feedforward mechanism?

Responses made in anticipation of a change.


What are glands?

Epithelial tissue derivatives specialized for secreting. Two types, exocrine and endocrine.


What is homeostasis?

Ability of a cell or organism to regulate its internal conditions, typically using feedback systems to minimize variation and maintain health regardless of changes in the external environment.


What is a homeostatic control system?

Functionally interconnected network of body components that operate to maintain a given factor in the internal environment within a narrow range to maintain a steady state.


What is human physiology?

The scientific study of the functions of our body.


What is the internal environment?

Environment with which the body cells are in direct contact and make life-sustaining exchanges.


What is interstitial fluid?

Component of the ECF, surrounds and bathes the cells.


What is intracellular fluid?

The fluid collectively contained within all body cells.


What are intrinsic (local) controls?

Controls that are built into an organ or are inherent in an organ. The organ is capable of maintaining homeostasis within itself. For example, the hear can control its own heartbeat.


What is a lumen?

Cavity within a hollow organ or tube.


What is a mechanistic approach?

Approach where physiologists view the body as a machine whose mechanisms of action can be explained in terms of cause and effect sequences of physical and chemical processes.


What is muscle tissue?

Consists of cells specialized for contracting and generating force. Three types, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.


What is negative feedback?

A change in a homeostatically controlled factor triggers a response that seeks to maintain homeostasis by moving the factor in the opposite direction of its initial change.


What is nervous tissue?

Consists of cells specialized for initiating and transmitting electrical impulses, which carry information over various distances. Found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.


What are organs?

Consist of two or more types of primary tissue organized together to perform a particular function or functions.


What is pathophysiology?

Abnormal functioning of the body associated with disease. The result of the disease may be a homeostatic disruption that is so severe that it is no longer compatible with survival, and death results.


What is a physiological range?

Range in which we proteins and such operate most efficiently.


What is plasma?

The fluid portion of the blood.


What is a plasma membrane?

Encloses the contents of each cell, separating these chemicals from those outside the cell. Generally a phospholipid bilayer.


What is positive feedback?

The output enhances or amplifies a change so that the controlled factor continues to move in the direction of the initial change. Ex: oxytocin.


What is secretion?

The release from a cell, in response to appropriate stimulation, of specific products that have been produced by the cell.


What is a sensor?

Can detect a change in the narrow physiological range.


What is a set point?

Specific point which is the object of homeostatic control. (albeit, less often than a physiological range.)


What is a stem cell network?

Canadian venture that fosters ethical stem cell research by bringing together more than 100 individuals to examine the therapeutic potential of stem cells.


What is a teleological approach?

Explains body functions in terms of meeting a bodily need (without considering how this is accomplished).


What are tissues?

Cells of similar structure and specialized function combine to form tissues, of which there are four primary types.