Flashcards in Psychotic Disorders-Kirkpatrick Deck (71):
What is this:
a perception of something (as a visual image or a sound) with no external cause
What is this:
a fixed, false belief that is not shared by other members of the person’s subculture
What is this:
irrelevance and incoherence of verbal productions ranging from simple blocking and mild circumstantiality to total loosening of associations
Disorganized speech is on a continuum of (blank) and is similiar in some instances to fluent (blank)
***fluent aphasia AKA wernickes, can produce words without grammatical error just doesn't make sense
What is aimless overactivity?
What are the most common forms of catatonia?
physical immobility or little or no speech
catatonia can be associated with (balnk) overactivity. What will this result in?
catatonia is found in multiple conditions but may be more common in (blank) disorder
What is the treatment for catatonia?
Malignant catatonia can include (blank) and can be (blank)
What are negative symptoms?
decrease or absence of a normal behavior or experience
What are the negative symptoms found in schizophrenia?
-Blunted affect (decrease in facial expression, expressive gestures/body language, modulation of speech/pitch/volume of voice)
-Poverty of speech (alogia: few words spoken, little information conveyed)
-Anhedonia (decreased experience of pleasure)
-Lack of normal distress
What are the disorders that can have psychosis (other than schizophrenia)?
Is schizophrenia an affective disorder?
It is an idiopathic psychosis (not due to another disorder)
What is the DSM criteria for schizophrenia?
2 or more of the following for one month (less if treated)
-Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, negative symptoms (diminished emotional expression or avolition)
-Decline in function
-continuous signs for 6 months
-affective DISORDER EXCLUSION
-not due to drugs, meds, or other med condition or autism
What are the disorders in the schizophrenia spectrum?
Brief psychotic disorder
Psychotic disorder not otherwise specific
Schizotypal personality disorder
Schizoid personality disorder
There is an 8 fold risk of having adult diabetes if you are a (Blank) baby
People who were conceived during the famine in holland were at increase risk of (blank) and (blank), they had a more athergenic plasma lipid profile, were more responsive to stress and had a doubled rate of coronary heart disease AND had more type 2 diabetes
What are risk factors for schizophrenia?
Low birth weight
Winter birth for schizophrenia as a whole
Summer birth for one subgroup
Prenatal stress, including infections
The most valid animal model for schizophrenia?
Prenatal stress in rats
Advanced (paternal/maternal) age
Is Cannabis use a risk factor?
Physic and sexual abuse in childhood/early adolescence?
What are some known genes that are risk factors for schizophrenia?
DISC1, neuregulin 1
-> having to many number variants cause it
Several of the genetic risk factors for schizophrenia are also risk factors for (blank and blank)
autism and mental retardation
For many patients, schizophrenia starts in (blank). How can you tell?
-abnormal motor and cognitive development in high-risk toddlers (children of mothers with schizophrenia)
-During childhood, adults with schizophrenia have abnormal motor and social function
When is the onset of schizophrenia?
T or F
More broadly, prenatal & perinatal events can increase the risk of several diseases that are first apparent in adult life
The development of schizophrenia can occur through (blank) pathways
multiple causal pathways
In regards to schizophrenia:
When do you see the negative symptoms?
When do you see cognitive impairment?
When do you see psychosis?
-detectable in childhood
-detectable in preschool children at high risk for psychosis
-typically late adolescence/early adulthood
(blank) in schizophrenic patients usually brings people to first clinical contact
(women/men) have later onset of schizophrenia
At what age do most schizophrenic patients have their first admission?
in their 20's
Is relapse common for schizophrenics?
Medication non-adherence (4x)
Persistent substance use (3x)
Carers' critical comments (but not overall expressed emotion) (2.3x)
Poorer premorbid adjustment (2.2)
(blank) is synonymous with the presence of psychotic symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thought and behavior)
The usual model of schizophrenia has a pathophysiology that is synonymous with abnormal regulation of (blank). What tells us that this may not be true?
-dopaminergic agents may not always solve the problem, other neurotransmitters may be involved, just because some dopamine agonist work doesnt mean that it works because schizophrenics lack it
People with schizophrenia have (blank) problems as well as psychosis and significant problems outside the brain such as (blank and blank)
anatomical abnormalities and metabolic problems
People with schizophrenia on average die (blank) years earlier than the general population. What causes the majority of these disease?
What contributes to these problems?
Antipsychotic medications-> associated with diabetes and weight gain
High prevalence of smoking, sedentary lifestyle, etc.
cognitive impairment is strongest predictor of (blank) is schizophrenics (NOT PSYCHOSIS)
level of function
What can we treat in schizophrenia?
T or F
some degree of impairment may be present in every patient with schizophrenia
When is cognitive impairment present in people with schizophrenia? Are impairments found in the family?
What is the most significant impairment?
prior to onset of psychosis
Estimates of the lifetime prevalence of major depression in schizophrenia are typically (blank) percent --- 2 or 3x that of the general population
Depression and schizophrenia may share risk factors, what are three of them?
What else do these two disorders share?
-low birth weight
aspects of pathophysiology
(blank) percent of subjects with schizophrenia had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence
(blank) percent had a lifetime diagnois of any substance abuse or dependence
Is SUD increased prior or post psychosis?
What substance may increase the risk of schizophrenia?
Who else is SUD increased in, in relation to the schizophrenic patient?
What anxiety disorders are in increased prevalence in patients with schizophrenia?
post-traumatic stress disorder
generalized anxiety disorder
T or F
obsessive-compulsive syndrome was a risk factor for subsequent schizophrenia
What are four neuropsychiatric syndromes that are related to schizophrenia?
* Increased prevalence of these symptoms in first degree relatives who do not have schizophrenia
T or F
The presence of a “comorbid” syndrome is so common as to be the rule rather than the exception in schizophrenia
Comorbid syndromes with schizophrenia probably share what?
environmental risk factors and common biology
People w/ schizophrenia are dying earlier of (blank) except what 2 things? What could be the cause?
stroke and cancer
People with schizophrenia have anatomical (blank) compared to the general pop. (i.e head, eyes, ears, mouth, hands feet THey are also slightly (Shorter/taller) and (thinner/fatter)
short and thinner -> small body mass index (BMI)
People with psychosis have what kinds of glucose regulation?
What about siblings of schizophrenic patients that do not have schizophrenia?
People with schizophrenia have impaired glucose tolerance and pre-diabetes
The also have impaired glucose tolerance and pre-diabetes
********For schizophrenics and schizophrenic siblings: Both normal at baseline but after 2 hours have impaired glucose
What is the blood pressure like in schizophrenic patients?
increased BP so increased prevalence of vascular disease
Patients with schizophrenia have decreased (blank) which is associated with accelerated aging
androgen (decreased free testosterone in males) and telomere content
Durign exacerabation of schizophrenia, what cytokines increase?
What are trait markers of schizophrenia (are elevated even when there is not exacerabation)?
Whats up with stem cells of schizophrenic patients?
abnormal signaling for adult circulating stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells)
What is the main chemokine that controls the movement of adult circulating stem cell?
What pathophysiology messes with this?
Stromal-derived factor 1-alpha (SDF1-alpha)
diabetes (and diabetes is hella prevalent in schizophrenics)
What is this:
Cells with broad differentiation potential
Involved in normal repairs processes
Reside much of the time in the bone marrow, but can be mobilized and localized to other organs
adult circulating stem cells
What are the abnormalities of the brain shown in schizophrenics?
What does this tell us?
-decreased volume of brain
-decreased volume of neurons
-increased densitiy of neurons
-decreased number of neurons
-increased dopamine release
-abnormal expression of NMDA receptor subunits
-decreased white matter volumes with abnormal orientation of fibers
That schizophrenia is not a neurodegenerative disease it is an abnormal development -> thus you just make less neurons and less synapses and less NMDA receptors
Administration of what three drugs can cause a mild increase in psychotic symptoms in people with schizophrenia?
What are the tx's for schizophrenia?
-tx for other neuropsychiatric syndormes (depression, anxiety)
Does psychoeducation work and what is it?
-yes, it reduces relapse
-educating the person about the illness
T or F
schizophrenia isnt a psychotic disorder
It is a disorder of essentially every brain function
T or F
Schizophrenia isn’t a brain disorder;
it is a disorder of the entire body in which psychosis is present
T or F
It is misleading to consider neuropsychiatric syndromes such as abnormal movements "comorbid" with schizophrenia;
they are part of the disorder
T or F
equate schizophrenia with dopamine dysregulation because psychosis responds (variably) to dopamine antagonists is like saying bubonic plague is a disease of aspirin insufficiency.
schizophrenia responds to dopamine, it isnt caused by dopamine depletion
What is the purpose of care for schizophrenia?
-To improve & maintain quality of life
-To extend life
-To deal with disability, discomfort or death
(blank) is a behavioral treatment that uses drill and practice, compensatory and adaptive strategies to facilitate improvement in targeted cognitive areas like memory, attention and problem solving.
Does Cognitive remediation work for schizophrenics?
yes a little bit in:
general cog, social cog, verbal memory, working memory, attention, processing speed, real-life function