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Flashcards in Personality Disorders-Kohlenberg Deck (51):

What is the most damaging personality disorder? How do you treat this?

Borderline Personality Disorder
DBT (only evidence based tx)


How does it feel to have a personality disorder?

-ego-syntonic (you feel fine but everything else isnt going right)
-and lives are miserable (relationships fail, depression, suicide)


What is this:
a common way a person feels and behaves across situations

Personality (combo of temperament and environment)


When a child’s relationship with his/her primary caregiver is problematic, it can affect the development of (blank) and (Blank)

identity and emotion regulation.


(blank) can arise from abnormal development of “self” in relation to “other.”



(blank) to their children’s emotion are believed to be central to this aspect of normal development.

Parents’ responses


When parents consistently respond with inaccurate labels, “out-of-sync” emotion, or abuse, this results in “invalidation” which can lead to (blank)



In longitudinal studies, children who experienced childhood abuse or neglect were (blank) times more likely to be diagnosed with a personality disorder during young adulthood.



Abuse and neglect are (blank) of child’s internal emotional experience, and thus are strongly tied to disorders of self.

“ultimate invalidation”


What is the general criteria for personality disorder?

1. enduring
2. inflexible and pervasive
3. clincally signif distress or impairment in function
4.long duration and onset in adolescene or early adulthood
5. not better exlained by another mental disorder
6. not due to physiological effects of substance or medical condition


Is borderline personality disorder common in kids?



What is cluster A?

Odd or eccentric (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal)


What is cluster B?

Dramatic, emotional, erratic (antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic)


What is cluster C?

Anxious, fearful (avoidant, dependent, obsessive compulsive personality disorder)


What is this:
A pattern of pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are considered malevolent. Begins in early adulthood, across a variety of contexts.

Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD)


What is this:
is reluctant to confide in others because of fears that the information will be used against him or her
reading insults into benign remarks
persistently bears grudges, is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights

perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react or to counterattack

has recurrent suspicions, w/o justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner

Paranoid Personality Disorder


(blank) does not occur during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood disorder with Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder and is not due to the physio. effects of a medical condition.

Paranoid Personality Disoder


Paranoid personality disorder is not paranoid schizophrenia, because of NO clear cut (blank, blank or blank) features. And the ENDURING QUALITIES.

delusions, hallucinations, or other psychotic features


What is this:
A pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions--beginning by early adulthood.
does not desire or enjoy close relationships, including being part of a family

Schizoid PD


What is this:
Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part of a family.
Has little interest, if any, in sexual experiences with another person
takes pleasure in few, if any, activities
lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others
shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affectivity

Schizoid PD


Is schizoid PD a part of schizophrenia?

NO, there is no psychosis
It Does not occur during the course of Schizophrenia, Mood Disorder w/Psychotic features….


How can you determine that schizoid PD is not avoidant personality disorder?

Because in schizoid there is a preference for being alone


What is this:
A pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cog. or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior.

(so they dont like bein around people and have magical thinking, are eccentric)


What is this:
odd beliefs or magical thinking
unusual perceptual experiences--including bodily illusions
odd thinking and speech peculiar behavior or appearance
suspiciousness or paranoia
inappropriate or constricted affect

Schizotypal PD


Is schizotypal PD part of schizophrenia?



What is this:
A pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that occurs that began in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood.
Must be at least 18 to receive this dx. COMPLETE LACK OF EMPATHY and INTIMACY

Antisocial PD


What is this:
Pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity that begins in early adulthood and is present in a variety of contexts.
-frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment
-idealized and devalued interpersonal relationships

Borderline PD


What is this:
identity disturbance--unstable sense of self
impulsive behavior--$, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, etc......
affective instability--reactivity of mood
chronic feelings of emptiness
recurrent suicidal behavior or self-mutilation
inappropriate anger
stress related paranoid ideation or dissociative symptoms.

Borderline Personality Disorder


What is the TX for BPD?

DBT with 80% reduction in symptoms


What is biological vulnerability?

its emotional dysregulation resulting in high sensitivity, high reactivity, long lasting arousal and mood instability


If a person is biologically vulnerable, small conflicts may feel like (blank) to the biologically vulnerable individual. How do they deal with these feeling?


Find ways to reduce distress -> involuntary automatic avoidance of painful emotional experience i.e cut themselves, hurt themselves (typically causes BPD)


Almost all (80-94%) self-mutilators report a decrease in (blank) and shame after cutting.

negative emotion


Self-mutilators often report that self-injury helps them feel as if they (blank) during periods of profound emptiness or dissociation.



32% of adult self-mutilators began cutting before age (blank)



What is this:
-helping a person learn skills to manage the world within them (i.e emotional regulation, mindfullness)
-Focus on being effective in world (chain analyisis, problem solve)



What is chain analysis?

helping a person say "i feel like this... but let me think about why?"... and then work to solve the underlying issues to resolve these feelings


What is wise mind

a part of DBT that melds the emotional mind with the rational/logical mind


What is this:
Pervasive and excessive emotionality and attention-seeking behavior
begins in early adulthood

Hitrionic PD


What is this:
Colorful, dramatic, extroverted, excitable and emotional. Males can act tough and macho. And a deep seated inability to maintain strong, reciprocal, and long-lasting friendships.
Love attention, unable to be ignored, shallow.

Histrionic PD


What is this:
A pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy that begins in early adulthood
-grandiose sense of self importance
-preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty or ideal love
-believes he or she is special or unique

Narcissistic PD


What is this:
requires excessive admiration
sense of entitlement
interpersonally exploitative
lacks empathy
envious of others and thinks others envy him or her
arrogant and haughty

Narcissistic PD


What is this:
no ability to be empathic
common in adolescents--not predictive of adult NPD
2-16% in the clinical population, 1% in gen. population
no heritability

Narcissistic PD


What is this:
a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, hypersensitivity to negative evaluation
avoids jobs that involve interpersonal contact, due to fears of disapproval or rejection
unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked
(unlike schizoid they want to be around people but just are too anxious to be)

Avoidant PD


What is this:
shows restraint within intimate relationships because of fear of being shamed or ridiculed
is preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situations

Avoidant PD


WHat is the difference between avoidant and schizoid?

Fear/anxiety VS disinterest


What is this:
pervasive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation
has difficulty making everyday decisions without advice from others
needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas in life
has difficulty disagreeing with others

Dependent PD


What is this:
A preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency.
preoccupied with details, rules, order--to the extent that the major point of an activity is lost
shows perfectionism-interferes with task completion

Obsessive-Compulsive PD


What is this:
is excessively devoted to work and productivity, excludes leisure activity and friendships
is overconscientious, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics or values
is unable to discard worn-out of worthless objects even with no sentimental value
is reluctant to delegate tasks (w/o assurance)



IS this OCD or OCPD:
Much suffering. Compulsive behaviors and or thoughts



Is this OCD or OCPD
personality style, not in misery



Can a personality disorder have a new onset?