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Flashcards in Public Health Deck (23)
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1

Define Incidence and Prevalence

Incidence - New cases in population
Prevalance - population number affected at time

2

Define lead time bias

Pt identified earlier appears to live longer

3

Define length time bias

Diseases slow growing more likely to be identified, therefore giving impression that screening results in higher survival

4

selection bias

error in selection or allocaiton. Proper randomisation not achieved

5

Information bias - measurement, observer, recall, and reporting?

Measurement - Different equipment used
Observer - researcher subconsciously records differently
Recall - Events not remembered correctly
Reporting - Suppression of info, embrassment

6

Publication bias

Negative results less likely to be published

7

Confounding factor

Association can be explained by unmeasured variable

8

Reverse Causality

Outcome causes exposure

9

Give WHO screening criteria for the condition, method, treatment, and screening programme

Condition must be - understood, identifiable latent phase, important health issue

Method must be - suitable to population

Tx - effective and accepted

Programme must be - Cost effective, benefit must outweigh harm (false postitive and negatives)

10

sensitivity vs specificity

Sensitivity - Positive correctly identified

Specificity - negative correctly identified

11

PPV vs NPV?

PPV - Porportion with positive result that have disease

NPV - proportion with negative result that dont have disease

12

What is case control study? pros and cons

case control - cases with conditions vs people without

Pros - Good for rare disease. Quick and cheap

Cons - Prone to selection bias

13

What is cohort study? Pros and cons

Cohort - People followed over time and exposure and disease recorded

Pros - Good for rare exposures. Decrease selection bias

Cons - Time consuming, needs large sample size

14

What is cross sectional study? pros and cons

Cross sectional study - one or more variables studied at one point in time

Pros - Quick, cheap, large sample size

Cons - Risks of recall bias, reverse causality, non-respondance

15

Define primary, secondary, tertiary prevention

Primary - remove risk factors of disaease

Secondary - prevent progression in early stages

Tertiary - Minimise disability in established disease

16

Bradford Hill Criteria?

So Sick And Tired Cant Do Revision
S - Strength of association
S - Specificity
A - Analogy, similarity to other cause effect relaionships
T - Temporality. Exposure before outcome
C - Coherence and Consistency. Logical.
D - Dose response
R - Reversibility

17

Define absolute and relative risk

Absolute - overall likelihood of ocurrence

Relative - incidence in exposed / incidence in unexposed

18

Define economic efficiency

Resources allocated to maximise benefit

19

Define incremental and marginal cost

Incremental - Difference in cost + QALYS between different treatments

Marginal - Cost incurred in producing 1 more unit

20

Health behaviour and illness behaviour

health behaviour - aimed at preventing disease

Illness behaviour - aimed at seeking remedy

21

Theory of planned behaviour

Prediction of behaviour can be attained by intention which itself is determined by attitude, subjective norm (what others think), and behavioural control (I cant quit)

22

Transtheoretical (stages of change) model

Pre-contemplation to contemplation to preparation to action to maintenance

23

Health inequality vs inequity

Inequality - differences in healthcare due to individuality

Inequity - Differences due to injustices