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Pharmacy Year 2 Semester 1 > Public: Innate Immunity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Public: Innate Immunity Deck (36):
1

Give 2 instances when the immune system can be beneficial

Protection from invaders
Elimination of altered self

2

Give 2 instances when the immune system can produce a detrimental effect

Discomfort (inflammation)
Damage to self (autoimmunity)

3

Describe the innate immune system

first line of defence
rapidly invoked
non-specific

4

Name 4 Innate mechanisms

-Anatomic resisting barriers (skin, mucous)
-Physiologic barriers (temperature, pΗ, etc)
-Phagocytosis
-Inflammatory defensive barriers (vasodilation, increase in capillary permeability, influx of phagocytes)

5

Name 3 ways the epithelia has innate immunity

physical barrier to infection
Killing of microbes by locally-produced antibiotics
Killing of microbes and infected cells by intraepithelial lymphocytes

6

Name 4 soluble factors of the innate immune system

Lysozymes
Acute phase proteins
Complement
Interferons

7

What do lysozymes do?

Split the bacterial wall of susceptible bacteria

8

What do acute phase proteins do?

Opsonisation
Attraction of phagocytes
Increased blood flow

9

What does complement do?

Opsonisation

10

Define opsonisation

Antibody opsonization is the process by which a pathogen is marked for ingestion and eliminated by a phagocyte. ..

11

What do interferons do?

Antiviral resistance

12

2 types of cells involved in the innate immune system and what they do

Phagocytes (macrophages) - engulf particles
Natural killer cells -recognise cell surface changes occurring on virally infected and tumour cells (cytotoxicity)

13

Cells of the immune system family tree
Two main groups

Myeloid cells
Lymphoid cells

14

Cells of the immune system family tree
2 groups under myeloid cells

Granulocytic
Monocytic

15

Cells of the immune system family tree
3 types of Granulocytic cell

Neutrophils
Basophils
Eosinophils

16

Cells of the immune system family tree
4 types of Monocytic cells

Macrophages
Langerhans
Kupffer cells
Dendritic cells

17

Cells of the immune system family tree
2 groups under lymphoid cells and everything under them

T cells - T helper and T cytotoxic
B cells - plasma cells

18

Draw the myeloid lineage on whiteboard

and check slide 11 to see if you're right

19

Describe monocytes

The human blood monocytes are larger cells than lymphocytes; they usually have a horseshoe-shaped nucleus and often contain faint azurophilic granules.

20

Macrophages

They are often referred to as scavengers or antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Stimulated macrophages exhibit increased levels of phagocytosis.
-Phagocytosis, intracellular and extra-cellular killing, tissue repair, antigen presentation for specific immune response.

21

Neutrophil

The most important cellular components in bacterial destruction. They are relatively large and most abundant white blood cells with lobed nucleus and cytoplasmic granules (lysosomes).
PMN granules are of two kinds: Primary and Secondary

22

Phagocytosis steps

1) Binding
2) Internalisation in vacuole
3) Fusion of vacuole with lysosome
4) Digestion of bacteria
5) Exocytosis

23

Basophils

They are found in a very small number in the circulation and are characterised by deep violet-blue granules.
-Active in allergic reactions
-Release histamine
-Bind complement C3a, C3b & C5a

24

Eosinophils

Eosinophils gather wherever there is a parasite infection or an allergic reaction such as allergic asthma, and then release their toxins contained in their granules. They can be triggered to degranulate by appropriate stimuli.
They play important role in the defence against parasitic infections.
Allergic reactions
-Histamine release

25

NK cells

Natural killer cells
Kill infected cells and also phagocytosed microbes

26

Mast cells (concentrated under the body surfaces)
mechanism of action

Release factors which increase blood flow and vascular permeability bringing components of immunity to the site of infection

27

Neutrophils and macrophages (phagocytes)

Engulf (phagocytose) and destroy micro-organisms

28

Eosinophils

Secrete factors which kill protozoa and worms

29

Natural killer cells

destroy virus infected cells

30

Alternate pathway of complement (a system of enzymes and control proteins)

Activate mast cells, attract phagocytes, make micro-organisms more easily recognised by phagocytes (opsonisation), lyse micro-organisms

31

Acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein, Mannose-binding lectin)

Activate complement and opsonise

32

Cytokines - interferon

toxic to viruses

33

Give an example of an organism resistant to phagocytosis
and its mechanism

Pneumococcus
Capsular polysaccharide inhibits phagocytosis

34

Give an example of an organism resistant to reactive oxygen intermediates in phagocytes
and its mechanism

Staphylococci
Production of catalase, which breaks down reactive oxygen intermediates

35

Give an example of an organism resistant to complement activation
and its mechanism

Neisseria meningitides - Sialic acid expression inhibits C3 and C5 convertases
And
Streptococcus - M protein blocks C3 binding to organism and C3b binding to complement receptors

36

Give an example of an organism resistant to antimicrobial peptide antibiotics
and its mechanism

Pseudomonas
Synthesis of modified LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) that resists the action of peptide antibiotics