Pulmo Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pulmo Pathology Deck (40):
1

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Centriacinar emphysema

Increased size lung fields

Hypertranslucency (vascular destruction

Long thin heart - emphysema

No infiltrates

2

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Centriacinar emphysema

extensive involvement of upper lung field

3

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Centriacinar emphysema

 

4

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Destroyed respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts distal to the terminal bronchiole

Note that the alveoli (i.e., 
peripheral portion of the lung acinus) are comparatively intact.

5

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Bronchiole in the centre (no cartilage)

Dilated + mucostasis

Peribronchial chronic inflammation composed of mature lymphocytes (small airways disease)

6

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Hyperinflated lung fields w/o infiltrates

Patchy areas of atelectasis (right lower zone on PA film)

 

7

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Hyperinflated lungs (don't collapse even after removed)

 

8

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Mucous plug

9

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Membranous bronchiole and accompanying pulmonary artery

Mucou secretions within airway lumen

airway inflammation/thickening

10

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Mucu within airway lumen

Apparent thickening of the subepithelial basement membrane

Inflammatory infiltrates (PMNs + eosinophils)

Subepithelial and adventitial fibrosis

11

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Extensive bronchiectasis

12

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Bronchiectasis

pneumonia + abscess formation

13

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Bronchiectasis

14

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Mucous secretions within airway lumen

Chronic airway inflammation

Some goblet cell metaplasia of the epithelium

15

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Dilated submucosal glands

Inspissated secretions within their lumens (typical of CF)

16

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Consolidation of R. middle lobe

17

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Consolidation of whole R middle lobe (uniform)

Grayish brown dry surface

Lobar pneumonia

18

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Suppurative, neutrophil-rich exudate filling alveolar air spaces

19

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+ Hx (foul purulent sputum, chills, fever)

Lung abscess

Cavitatory lesion with irregular walls

Necrosis of lung tissue

20

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Lung abscess

Well-circumsized 3-4 cm lesion with necrotic material in the centre

The cavity contains necrotic sloughed lung tissue and 
degenerated purulent excudate in varied proportions

The cavity is surrounded by granulation tissue which in long-standing 
cases, will become a well-developed fibrous capsule

21

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Lung abscess

suppurative 
destruction of the lung parenchyma within the central area of cavitation

The cavity contains necrotic sloughed lung tissue and 
degenerated purulent excudate in varied proportions

The cavity is surrounded by granulation tissue which in long-standing 
cases, will become a well-developed fibrous capsule (which is seen in the photograph). 

 

22

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ARDS, severe pneumonia

23

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early exudative phase of ARDS with edema, cellular debris and early hyaline membrane formation

24

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proliferative phase of ARDS

well defined hyaline membranes

increased cellularity in the interstitium with occasional 
fibroblast-like cells seen (spindled cells)

arrow = hyaline membranes

25

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Ground glass centrilobular nodes

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis)

26

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Irregular chronic interstitial inflammatory infiltrate

Poorly formed granulomas and chronic interstitial inflammation at 
arrows, no true fibrosis

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis)

27

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Granulomas are present in lung and mediastinal node; node is enlarged because it is completely replaced by granulomas. 
Dx = sarcoid

 

28

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Granulomas are present in lung and mediastinal node; node is enlarged because it is completely replaced by granulomas. 
Dx = sarcoid. 

 

29

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Granulomas are present in lung and mediastinal node; node is enlarged because it is completely replaced by granulomas. 
Dx = sarcoid

 

30

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Patchy patterns of fibrosis

Fibroblast focus at arrow

Usual interstitial pneumonia (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis)

31

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R. lower lobe collapse

Atelectasis due to obstruction or compression

32

Bronchial biopsy

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Moderately well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma

Upper 10% of photograph = bronchial mucosa

immediately below: chronic inflammatory cells, including many plasma cells

33

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Squamous cell carcinoma

single cell keratinization

 

34

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Squamous cell carcinoma

keratin pearl formation

35

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Squamous cell carcinoma

intercellular bridges

36

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Adenocarcinoma

gland formation

37

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Adenocarcinoma

mucus production

38

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Cavitary Pancoast tumour

cavity inside lesion = carcinoma, TB, lung abscess

39

Sputum cytology and fine needle aspiration of supraclavicular mass

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Small cell carcinoma

In sputum the tumor appears as small dark cells in non-cohesive clusters; nuclei are hyperchromatic, nucleoli are absent, cytoplasm is scant, nuclei mold around one another and crush artefact may be present. 

Well preserved small cell carcinoma cells in fine needle aspirates are two to three times the size of a lymphocyte, have "salt 
and pepper" chromatin with hyperchromatic, variably sized and shaped nuclei, no (or inconspicuous) nucleoli and tend to mold 
around one another.

Crush artifact (strands of DNA) is usually present. The tumor cells tend to be clustered together but are not 
usually cohesive

40

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Cardiac muscle showing small cell carcinoma infiltration (uncommon)