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Physiology III > Pulmonary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pulmonary Deck (42):
1

What type of cells line the trachea?

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells

2

Where is the uvula located?

within the nasopharynx

3

Where is the glottis located?

Within the larynx

4

What type of cells line the bronchi?

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, same that line the trachea

5

What makes up the tracheobronchial tree?

alveolar ducts and alveoli

6

What muscles are responsible for inspiration?

diaphragm, external intercostal muscles, sternomastoids, serratus anterior muscles, scalene muscles

7

What muscles are responsible for forceful expiration?

abdominal muscles and internal intercostals.

8

What muscle initiates inspiration by lifting upward on the sternum?

sternomastoids

9

What muscles cause inspiration by lifting on most of the ribs?

Serratus anterior muscles(most ribs)
scalene ribs (first two ribs)

10

True or False. Expiration is passive at rest.

True

11

What is the name of the volume of air that is inspired or expired with each breath at rest?

tidal volume

12

What is the name of the volume of air that can be inspired in addition to tidal volume with forceful inspiration?

inspiratory reserve volume

13

What is the name of the volume of air that can be expired at the end of tidal volume by forceful expiration?

Expiratory reserve volume

14

What is the name of the volume of air remaining in lungs after forceful expiration?

residual volume

15

What is vital capacity?

The sum of all the volumes that can be inspired or exhaled at max. Expiratory reserve volume +tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume

16

What is the average vital capacity of a healthy individual?

4600 mL

17

What is the average expiratory reserve volume of a healthy individual?

1100mL

18

What is the average residual volume of a healthy individual?

1200mL

19

What is the average tidal volume in a healthy individual?

500mL

20

What is the average inspiratory reserve volume of a healthy individual?

3000mL

21

What is the relationship between lung capacities and lung volumes?

Lung capacity is the max volume of gas the lungs can hold. The lung capacity is made up of nonoverlapping subcompartments referred to as lung volumes. The combinations of lung volumes form lung capacities

22

What is the minute ventilation and how is it calculated?

Total volume of gases moved into or out of the lungs per minute.
(Breaths per minute) x (tidal volume)

16breaths/min x 500mL /breath = 8000mL/min

23

What is alveolar ventilation and how do you calculate it?

Total volume of gases that enter spaces participating in gas exchange per minute.
(breaths per minute) x ( tidal volume-dead space)
16 breaths/minute x (500ml/breath -150 ml/breath) = 5600 mL/min

24

What is the average volume of dead space per breath?

150 mL/breath

25

What is the difference between anatomical dead space and physiological dead space?

anatomical dead space is where gas exchange does not occur because of their anatomical function (example: trachea, bronchi, bronchioles). The phsyiological dead space is the anatomic dead space + ventilated alveoli with poor or absent perfusion.
average dead space is 150mL/breath or .15 liters

26

What is visceral pleura?

The layer that covers the surface of the lungs

27

What is the peripheral pleura?

The surface lining the pulmonary cavity

28

What is pleural pressure?

Pressure of the fluid between parietal pleura and the visceral pleura

29

What is the alveolar pressure?

Pressure of the air inside the alveoli

30

What is the transpulmonary pressure?

difference between the alveolar pressure and the pleural pressure

31

As lung volume increases during inspiration, what is the effect on the pleural, alveolar pressure, and transpulmonary pressure?

The pleural pressure becomes more negative while the alveolar pressure drops below atmospheric pressure increasing the transpulmonary pressure. This creates a suction pulling air into the lungs

32

What is compliance of the lungs?

The extent (volume) to which lungs will expand for each unit increase in the transpulmonary pressure.

33

What is the equation for calculating the compliance of the lungs?

increase in volume/increase in pressure

or

because distensibility = Vinc/ P inc x Vorig
distensibility x Voriginal = V inc/Pinc

34

What two factors determine the curve of the compliance diagram of the lungs?

The elastic forces of lung tissue
surface tension within the alveoli

35

What happens to the compliance diagram when surfactant is replaced with saline?

The saline-filled lungs will inflate with too much ease diminishing the air-fluid interface. On the diagram the curves of inspiration and expiration are very similar and very little change in pleural pressure.

36

What is the difference between elastance and compliance?

Compliance is the volume change resulting form the application of a unit pressure differential between the inside and outside of the viscus.
Elastance is a measure of the tendency of a hollow viscus to recoil toward its original dimensions upon removal of a distending or collapsing force.

37

What effect does increasing surface tension have on the alveoli?

Increasing surface tension will attempt to collapse the alveoli

38

What are the most important components of surfactant?

dipalmitoylphophatidylcholin (a phospholipid)
calcium ions
surfactant apoproteins

39

What type of cells produce surfactant?

Type II alveolar cells

40

What is the average pressure of surface tension of the average sized alveolus?

4 cm of water pressure (3mmHg)

41

The average pressure of surface tension in an average sized alveolus is 4 cm of water or 3 mmHg. What effect would the lack of surfactant have on the pressure?

Without surfactant the pressure would increase to 18cm of water pressure; about 4.5 times as great.

42

What is the carina? and where is it located?

cartilaginous ring within the trachea between the two primary bronchi at the site of the tracheal bifurcation. The mucosa of this area is most sensitive of the trachea and larynx for triggering the cough reflex.