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Flashcards in pulmonary Deck (28)
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1

What are the 5 parts of the lower respiratory tract?

larynx
trachea
bronchus
bronchioles
alveoli

2

What regulates automatic respiration?

brainstem

3

what affects voluntary ventiliation?

cerebral cortex

4

Gu qi + Zong qi = ??

Zhen qi

5

what are the four primary volumes that make up total lung capacity

Tidal Volume (TV)
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
Residual Volume (RV)

6

Define Tidal Volume.

Under resting conditions, 500 mls of air enter and leave the lungs w/each breath

7

Define Inspiratory Reserve Volume?

3100 mls. After a normal quiet inspiration, a person inspires as much air as possible. The volume above tidal volume = IRV

8

Define Expiratory Reserve Volume?

1200 mls - after a nomal expiration, a person can force out approx. 1 liter of air.

9

Define Residual Volume

1200 mls. The volume of air remaining after a forced expiration is the residual volume

10

Define Inspiratory capacity

Inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume. 3600 ml

11

Define functional residual capacity

Residual volume + Expiratory reserve volume - 2400 ml

12

define vital capacity

tidal volume + inspiratory + expieratory reserve volumes - 4800 mls

13

define total lung capacity

vital capacity + residual volume - 6000 ml

14

define spirometry

measures the amount and rate of air a person breathes in order to diagnose illness or determine progress in treatment

15

what is FEV 1

forced expiratory volume in 1 second - the volume of air that is forcefully exhaled in one second

16

What is obstructive disease pattern?

an obstructive disorder refers to any disease that affects the lumen of the airways

17

Name two obstructive disorders

asthma and chronic bronchitis

18

define asthma

a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by episodes of cough, wheezing and dyspnea

19

What are the 3 significant physiological changes with asthma?

bronchoconstriction
inflammation/edema
increased mucus production

20

Define air trapping

increased smooth muscle tone during an asthma attack means the airways close @ abnormally high lung volumes, trapping air behind occluded or narrowed small airways. Therefore one breathes at the top of ones lung capacity over a mass of stagnant air that can't be exhaled.

21

What 2 conditions is barrel chest associated?

Emphysema and lung hyperinflation

22

What produces mucus with asthma?

Goblet cells and submucosal glands

23

What do you do when a spirometry test is negative but asthma is suspected?

Methacholine Challenge = a positive test = FEV 1 of at least 20% at exposure to a dose of 16 mg/ml or less.

24

Define Peak expiratory flow

a handheld device designed as a home monitoring tool used to base treatment decisions

25

what is mild intermittent asthma

1) Sx < 2x/wk
2) asymptomatic and normal PEF betw exacerbations
3) exacerbations are brief
4) night time sx < 2x/wk

26

define mild persistent asthma

1) sx > 2x/wk but < 1 time/day
2) exacerbations may affect activity
3) Night sx > 2x/wk

27

define moderate persistent asthma

1) Daily symptoms.
2) Daily use of inhaled short-acting beta 2-agonist.
3) Exacerbations affect activity.
4) Night time Sx >1 times per week.

28

define severe persistent asthma

1) Continual symptoms
2) Limited physical activity
3) Frequent exacerbations
4) Night time sx are frequent